G D i 1,2-. Haman. Advancement. k -2-4. The king. Command re Haman. E l 5,6. The plot. Devised. m 7. Pur. The month by lot. 12th month. D i 8,9. Haman. Plot purposed. k 10,11. The king. Compliance with Haman. E m 12-. Pur. The day by lot. 13th day. l -12-15. The plot succeeds.
1 After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite (a descendant of Amalekite king [Num. 24:7. 1 Sam. 15:8,32]), and advanced him (Haman was not made Grand-Vizier till 5 years later. See v.7), and set his seat above all the princes that were with him.
2 And all the king's servants, that were in the king's lofty porch, bowed (Heb. kāra'. This word used of idols [1 Kings 19:18. 2 Chron. 29:29]. Shahah is the word used to bowing to kings and others), and reverenced Haman: for the king had so charged concerning him.
But Mordecai bowed not (He could not bow to an Amalkite, against whom Yahaveh had declared perpetual war. See Ex. 17:16), nor did him reverence.
3 Then the king's servants, which were in the king's gate, said to Mordecai, "Why transgress you the king's commandment?"
4 Now it came to pass, when they spoke daily to him, and he hearkened not to them, that they told Haman, to see whether Mordecai's matters would stand: for he had told them that he was a Judean.
5 And when Haman saw that Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence, then was Haman full of wrath.
6 And he thought scorn to lay hands on Mordecai alone; for they had showed him the people of Mordecai: wherefore Haman sought to destroy all the Judeans (i.e. tribe of Judah) that were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus, even the people of Mordecai. (Another assault of Satan against the nation through whom the Seed of the woman was to come.)
March 462 B.C.
7 In the first month, that is, the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that is, the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month (the reference is to "the monthly prognosticators" of Isa. 47:13. This was to fix on a fortunate time. Cp. 9:24), to the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar.
8 And Haman said to king Ahasuerus (having gotten the month and day [the 13th, see v.13, 13 = rebellion, apostasy, defection, corruption, disintegration, revolution), "There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of your kingdom (cp. 2 Chron. 36:23. Ezra 1:1-4); and their laws are diverse from all people; neither keep they the king's laws: therefore it is not for the king's profit to suffer them. 9 If it please the king, let it be written that they may be destroyed: and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver (1 talent of silver = 100 lbs. approx.) to the hands of those that have the charge of the business, to bring it into the king's treasuries."
10 And the king took his ring from his hand, and gave it to Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the Judeans enemy.
11 And the king said to Haman, "The silver is given to you, the people also, to do with them as it seems good to you." (This is the aim of the great enemy, who was using Haman as he had tried to use Pharaoh in Egypt. See Gen. 6:2,4.)
12 Then were the king's scribes called on the thirteenth day (note the 3 13's, 3:12,13; 8:12) of the first month,
and there was written according to all that Haman had commanded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the rulers of every people of every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and sealed with the king's ring.
March 5th, 461 B.C.
13 And the letters were sent by the hand of the runners (cp. 8:10) into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all of the tribe of Judah, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.
14 The copy of the writing for a Imperial decree to be given in every province was published to all peoples, that they should be ready against that day.
15 The posts went out, being hastened by the king's word, and the decree was given in Shushan the palace. And the king and Haman sat down to drink (So Joseph's brethren [Gen. 37:25], and Herod [Matt. 14:6. Mark 6:21]. So it will be [Rev. 11:7-10]); but the city Shushan was perplexed. (A rare word. Ex. 14:3, "entangled". Joel 1:18. This verse speaks of the effect on the Persians. Ch 4 speaks of the effect on Judeans [i.e. the tribe of Judah].)