"THE STARS ALSO."
by E.W. Bullinger
In the first mention of the heavenly bodies, the
purpose of the Creator is clearly stated. In
Gen.1:14-19 reveals the fact that they were created,
not only "to divide the day from the night, and to
give light upon the earth; but, they were set "for
signs, and seasons, and for days and years".
Figure Polysyndeton empathizes these four
purposes, and bids us single them out and consider
them separately and independently.
They are "for
Heb. 'oth, from 'athak, to come.
Signs, therefore, of something or some One to come.
Those who understand them are enlightened by them.
Those who do not may well be "dismayed"
The stars are numbered and named.
There are twelve signs of the Zodiac, called "the
stars" in Gen.37:9 (eleven of which bowed down to
Joseph's twelfth). The word Zodiac means the
degrees or steps, which mark the stages of the
sun's path trough the heaven's, corresponding with
the twelve month's.
The stars were all named by
God (Ps.147:4). Most of these names have been lost;
but over 100 are preserved through the Arabic and
Hebrew, and are used by astronomers today, though
their meaning is unknown to most of them. Many of
them are used in Scripture as being well known,
though the translations are somewhat speculative;
example JOB 9:9. Heb.'ash (Arcturus, R.V. the
Bear), kesil (A.V. Orion), kimash
(Pleiades's). JOB 38:31,32 mazzaroth (margin,
and R.V., the twelve signs; margin, the signs of the
Zodiac). Cp. 2 Kings 23:5, 'ash
(Arcturus with her sons, R.V. the Bear with her
train, both versions being incorrect as to the
names). See also Isa.13:10. Amos 5:8.
names and the twelve "signs" go back to the
foundations of the world. Jewish tradition,
preserved by Josephus, assures us that this Bible
astronomy was invented by Adam, Seth, and
We see evidence of it as early as
Gen.11:4, where we read of the Tower of Babel having
"his top with the heavens". There is nothing about
the wrongly supplied italics "may reach unto". The
words doubtless, refer to the signs of the Zodiac,
pictured at the top of the Tower, like the Zodiacs in
the Temples of Denderah, and Esneh in
The Babylonian "Creation Tablets"
refer to them, though their primitive meaning had
been either corrupted or lost. It is the same with
Greek mythology, which is a corruption of primitive
truth which had been lost and perverted.
to remember that our written Scriptures began
with Moses, say in 1490 B.c.: and thus, for more
than 2,500 years, the revelation of the hope which
God gave in Gen.3:15 was preserved in the naming of
the stars and their grouping in Signs and
These groupings are quite
arbitrary. There is nothing in the positions of the
stars to suggest the pictures originally drawn around
them. The Signs and the Contellations were first designed and named; then, the pictures were drawn
around them respectively. Thus the truth was
enshrined and written in the heavens, where no human
hand could touch it. In latter years, when Israel
came into possession of the written "Scriptures of
Truth", there was no longer any need for the more
ancient writing in the heavens. Hence, the original
teaching gradually faded away, and the
out of the smattering they had heard by tradition,
evolved their cosmogonies and
Ps.19 contains a vivid
reference to these two Books of revelation. That is
why there is a very sudden change of subject at v.7;
a change which still perplexes and baffles all the
skill of "commentators".
The teaching is
preserved in the structure of the Psalm, where we
A | 1-4-. The Heavens
B | -4-6. "In
them, the sum".
A | 7-10. The Scriptures.
"In them, Your servant".
In this structure
every line emphasizes the elaboration of the design:
for, while, in the first half, all the terms are
literary, in the latter half they are
astronomical, thus welding the two portions of
the Psalm into one harmonious whole.
meaning of the words, references must be made to the
Psalm itself. We can only note here that the first
part does not refer to the wonders of
creation, but to the eloquence of its teaching and
revelation: they "declare", tell, or narrate
(Gen.24:66. Ps.71:15), they "utter speech", but
without words (omit "where" in v.3); Heb.= they
"show forth", exhibit (Gen.3:11. Ps.97:6; 111:6);
they prophecy "day by day", "night by night". The
question is: What do they prophecy? What knowledge
do they show forth? What glory do they tell
The answer is - Gen.3:15. The one great
central truth of all prophecy - the coming One, Who,
though He should suffer, should in the end crush the
head of the old serpent, the Devil.
are we to open this book? Where are we to break into
this circle of the Zodiacal signs?
"precession of the Equinoxes" the sun gradually
shifts its position a little each year, till in about
every 2,000 years it begins the year in a different
sign. This was foreseen; and it was also foreseen
that succeeding generations would not know when and
where the sun began its course, and where we were to
open its first page. Hence the "Sphinx" was invented
as a memorial. It had the head of a woman and the
body and tail of a lion, to tell us that this Book,
written in the Heavens, began with the sign "Virgo",
and will end with the sign "Leo". The word "sphinx"
is from the Greek sphino, to join; because it
binds together the two ends of this circle of the
The number of the Signs is twelve, the
number of governmental perfection or "rule": cp.
Gen.1:18. They are divided into three books of four
chapters (or signs) each: twelve being the product of
3 X 4, i.e. of Divine truth working in the heavens
and in the earth (see next page for Biblical
Each book, therefore, consists of
four signs; and these are all arranged, by structure,
in exactly the same way. Each in an introversion.
Thus we have the three books:
First Book. THE
A | VIRGO. The prophecy of the promised seed.
B | LIBRA. The Redeemer's work
B | SCORPIO. The Redeemer's
A | SAGITTARIUS. The prophecy
Second Book. The
(His work and its
C | CAPRICORNUS. The prophecy
D | AQUARIUS. Results of work
D | PISCES. Results of work
C | ARIES. The prophesied
Third book. The
E | TAURUS. The prophecy of
F | GEMINI. The Redeemer's
reign in glory.
F | CANCER. The
E | LEO. The prophecy of triumph
Each of the four chapters in each of these three
Books consists of three sections; ad each section is
represented by a Constellation. There are thus 36
(3x12) Constellations, which, with the twelve Signs,
make 48 (4x12) in all.
They may thus be set
The First Book. The
"The sufferings of
I. VIRGO (A)
The prophecy of the coming
1. COMA (=The desired). The woman and the child
desired of all nations (in the most ancient
2. CENTAURUS (with two natures). The
3. BOOTES. The coming One
II. LIBRA (B)
The Redeemer's atoning
1. CRUX. The Cross endued.
2. LUPUS. The Victim
3. CORONA. The Crown bestowed.
III. SCORPIO (B)
The Redeemer's conflict.
1. SERPENS. Assaulting the man's
2.OPHIUCHUS. the man grasping the
3. HERCULES. The mighty man
1. LYRA. Praise prepared for
2. ARA. Fire prepared for his
3. DRACO. The dragon cast
The Second Book. The
CAPRICORNUS (C)The results
of the Redeemer's suffering's
1. SAGITTA. the
arrow of God sent forth.
2. AQUILA. The smitten
3. DELPHINUS. The dead One rising
1. PISCIS AUSTRALIS. the
2. PEGASUS. The blessings
3. CYGNUS. The Blesser surely
(D)The blessings in
1. THE BAND. The great
2. ANDROMEDA. The redeemed
3. CEPHEUS. The Deliverer coming to
1. CASSIOPEIA. The captive
2. CETUS. The great enemy bound.
PERSEUS. The "Breaker"
The Third Book.
The Redeemer."The glory that
TAURUS (E).Messiah coming to
1. ORION. The Redeemer breaking
forth as Light.
2. ERIDANUS. Wrath breaking forth
as a flood.
3. AURIGA. Safety for His redeemed in
the day of wrath.
(F)Messiah as Prince of
1. LEPUS. The enemy trodden
2. CANIS MAJOR. The coming glorious
3. CANIS MINOR. The exalted
1. URSA MINOR. The lesser
2. URSA MAJOR. The fold and the
3. ARGO. The pilgrim's arrival at
1. HYDRA. The old
2. CRATER. The cup of wrath
3. CORVUS. The birds of prey
It will be noted that some modern names are used,
but only for the purpose of readier identification.
Some of the names were given in ignorance, by those
who had lost the primitive signification of the
twelve Signs and of the 36 Constellations.
Hebrew and Arabic names are these, and of the
principal stars contained in them, are full of truth,
and eloquent in their teaching.
Here we have the star Al Zimach, Heb. Zemach, the branch. Isa.4:2. Jer.23:5,6. Zech.3:8; 6:12. All the other stars have cognate meanings.
desired (Hag.2:7). Num.24:17. (Egyptian
Shes-nu=the desired son.)
Al Beze, the despised
BOOTES. (Heb. bo', to
come), Ps.96:13. Heb. Arcturus (Job 9:9=He
comes). Egyptian=Smat, one who rules.
was anciently the Altar (Accadian=Tulki). The two bright stars are to-day called in Arabic Zubin al Genubi=the prince which is deficient, and
Zubin al Chemali=the prince which covers.
CRUX. Heb. karath, to cut off
LUPUS. Greek name Thera, a beast. Latin Victima. Hebrew zabah, slain. In the Zodiac of Denderah=Sura, a
CORONA. Heb. 'atarah, a royal crown. Arab. Al iclil, a jewel. Its brightest star=Al phema, the shining one.
Heb. 'akrab (Ps.91:13. Coptic
name=Isidis=the attack of the enemy. Arabic=Al aterah, the wounding of the Coming one. The brightest star is Antares (Arab.=wounding). Heb. lezuth, perverseness.
SERPENS. The brightest star is called (Heb). 'anak=encompassing. Heb.
kelalah=the accursed. Arab. Al hay, the
OPIUCHUS. In Arab. Afeichus=the serpent held. The brightest star is Ras al hagus=the head of him that holds. Other names are
Regeras=contending. In the Zodiac of Denderah he is Api-bau=the chief who comes. Other stars are triphas=treading under foot; Saiph=bruised;
HERCULES. In the Zodiac of Denderah called Bau=who comes. Arab. Al giscale, the strong one. The brightness star, Ras al Gethi=the head of him who bruises.
Heb.kesheth (an archer, Gen.21:20). The brightest star, Heb. channun=the gacious one (Ps.45:2). Accadian, Nun-ki=Prince of the earth. In the Zodiac of Denderah, Pi-maere=graciousness, and Knem, He conquers.
LYRA. (Ps.65:1) The brightest star
Vega=He shall be exalted. In the Zodiac of Denderah=Fent-kar=the serpent ruled. Originally an eagle, from confusion between Heb. nesher, and shir (song, or music).
ARA. An altar upside down, pointing to Tartarus (Isa.63:4,5). Arab. Al mugamra=the completing or finishing (Ps.21:9-12).
DRACO. Ends the first Book.
The dragon cast down. CETUS ends the second Book.
Leviathan bound. HYDRA ends the third Book. The old
serpent destroyed. Draco=trodden on. (Ps.91:13;
74:12-14. Isa.27:1). In the Zodiac of Denderah it is
a serpent under the fore-feet of Sagittarius and called Her-fent=the serpent accursed. The brightest star called Thuban=the subtil.
= the goat of atonement. In the Zodiac of Denderah and Esneh, hu-penius=the place of the sacrifice. Heb.
Gedi, the kid, or Gad'a, cut off. The
brighest star is Al-gedi=the kid. Th next is
Denab al gedi=the sacrifice of the kid.
SAGITA, the arrow. (Ps.38:2. Isa.53:4,5) Heb. Shamad, or shamem=destroying. AQUILA, the eagle, pierced and wounded and falling. The brightest star, Al tairwounding. All others are similar.
DELPHINUS. Always a fish full of life, the head upwards. Heb. =the pouring out of water. Arab. Dalaph=coming quickly.
In the Zodiac of Denderah he has two urns. The fish seems to have come out of one of them. Heb. name Dali=water-urn or bucket (Num.24:7). Brightest star Sa'ad al Melik=the record of the pouring forth. The next Sa'ad al Sund=who goes and returns (cp.
sa.32:1,2; 35:1,6; 41:18; 44:2-6; 51:3).
PISCIS AUSTRALIS. The southern fish. Arab. Fom al haut=the mouth of the fish. Zodiac of Denderah=Aar, a
PEGASUS. The winged horse. Zodiac of
Denderah Pe and ka=Peka, or
pega. Heb. pehah=the chief, and sus, a horse; name thus come down. The brightest is Markab, Heb. merhak=returning from afar.
the Zodiac of Denderah, Tes-ark=this from
afar. A mighty bird, not falling like Aquila. Brightest star Deneb=the Judge; called also Adige=flying swiftly. The second, Al
Bireo=flying quickly. Two other; Azel=who
goes and returns quickly, and Fafage=gloriously shining forth.
Egyptian name in the Zodiac of Denderah=Pi-cot Orion or Pisces Hori=the fishes (i.e. swarms or multitudes) of Him Who comes. Heb. Dagim, the fishes (Gen.48:16). Syr. name, Numo=lengthened out
(i.e. posterity). Cp. Isa.53:10. Ps.33:12; 37:22;
115:14,15. Isa.61:9; 65:23; 26:15; 9:3. Jer.30:19.
Ezek.36:10,11; 37:26. Note the two fishes=the earthly
and heavenly callings (one fish horizontal, the other
looking upward). 113 stars much of the same magnitude. The brightest star is Okda=the united. the next (Arabic) Al samaca=the upheld. (Isa.41:8-10).
THE BAND. Egyptian name U-or=He comes binding tem together (Hos.11:4); and breaking the band which binds tem to their old enemy (Cetus).
ANDROMEDA. Name in
the Zodiac of Denderah is Set, which means seated as a queen. Also, Sirco=the chained. The brightest star is Al Phiratz=the broken down. The next, Alamok (Arab.)=stuck down. (Isa.54:11-14; 51:21. Jer.14:17.)
CHEPHUS The king. In the Zodiac of Denderah Pe-ku-hor=this one comes to rule. Chephus is Greek from Heb. zemah=the Branch. Etheopian name, Hyh=a king. The brightest star is Al Deramin=coming quickly. The next is Al Phirk=the Redeemer. The next, Al Rai'=who bruises or breaks.
The ram or lamb full of vigor. Not falling in death like Capricornus. The name in the Zodiac of Denderah
Tametouris Ammon=the reign or rule of Ammon. Heb. name Taleh=the lamb. Arab. Al Hamel=the sheep. Syr. Amroo, as in John 1:20. The Accadian name was Bar-Ziggar=the altar making right=the sacrifice of righteousness. The brightest star is El nath, or El natik=wounded, or slain. The next, Al Sharatan=the bruised, or wounded. Cp. Rev.5:9-12.
CASSIOPEIA. The enthroned woman.
Arabic name El seder=the freed. In the Zodiac of
Denderah Set=seated as a queen. Arabic Ruchba=the enthroned. The brightest star is
Schedir=the freed. the next, Kaph (Heb.)=the
branch. (Isa.54:5-8; 62:3-5. Jer.31:3-13. Ps.45:9-17.
CETUS. The sea monster. the great
enemy bound (Rev.20:10; cp. 20:1-3). The name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Knem=subdued. The brightest star is
Menkar=the enemy chained. The next is Diphda, or
Deneb Kaitos=overthrown, or thrust down. Another is
Mira=the rebel. (Job 41:1-10. Isa.51:22,23;
PERSEUS. The breaker.
Heb. Perez. Greek, Perses, or Perseus
(Rom.16:12. Mic.2:12,13). Name in the Zodiac of Denerahis
Kar Knem=he who fights and subdues. Te brightest
star is Mirfak=who helps. The next, Al
Genib=who carries away. The next is Athik=who
Messiah coming in judgment. Chald. Tor>. Hence, Arabic Al Thaur; Greek, Tarous; Lat. Taurus. The common Heb. name is Shur=coming and ruling, and Re'em=pre-eminence. The brightest star is Al Debarah=the Leader or Governor. The next is El-nath=wounded or slain. The group Pleiades is
Kimah=heap or accumulation. (Job 9:9; 38:31,32. Amos 5:8). A bright star is Al Cyone=the center. Heb. and Syr. name is Succoth=booths. Another group,
i>Hyades=the congregated. (Deut.33:17. Ps.44:5.
Isa.13:11-15; 34:2-8; 26:21).
ORION. The coming
Prince. Light breaking forth, through the Redeemer. In the
Zodiac of Denderah it is Ha-ga-t=this is He who
triumphs. Oarion=Heb.'Or, light; or coming
forth as light (cp. Job 9:9; 38:31. Amos 5:8). Heb.
Kesil=a strong one (translated "orion" in Job 9:9;
38:31. Amos 5:8). The brightest star is
Betelquez=the coming Branch (Mal.3:2). The next is
Rigel or Regol=the foot of Him that crushes. The
next is Bellatrix=swiftly destroying. Another is
Al Nitak=the wounded One. Many others with names of
cumulative meanings. (See Isa.42:13,14;
ERIDANUS. The river of judgment. In the
Zodiac of Denderah it is Peh-ta-t=the mouth of the
river. The brightest star is Achernar=the after
part of the river. So with the other names, going forth,
flowing on (to the lower regions of the south). Dan.7:9-11. Ps.97:3-5; 50:3. Hab.3:5. Isa.30:27-33. Nah.1:5,6.
AURIGA. The Shepherd.
(Isa.40:10,11. Ezek.34:22). Auriga=Charioteer. The
brightest star is Alioth=a she-goat. Modern Lat.
name is Capella, same meaning. The next is
Menkilinon=the band of the goats; bound, never to be lost again. (John 10:11). In the Zodiac of Denerah, the
shepherd carries a sceptre (Trun), the top with a
goat, and bottom with a cross. (Mal.4:1-3.
The twins. Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Clusus, or Claustrum Hori=the place of Him Who comes. The old Coptic name was Pi-Mahi=the united. Heb. Thaumin (from ta'am)=double. The root used in Ex.26:24 (twine together). The brightest star is Apollo=ruler or judge. The next is Hercules=who comes to labor and suffer. Another is Al Henah=hurt, wounded. (Isa.4:2; 32:1,2. Jer.23:5,6; 33:14,15).
LEPUS (the enemy trodden under foot). In the Zodiac of Denderah the name is
Bashti-beki=falling confounded. Aratus says "chased
eternally". The brightest star is Arnebo=the enemy
of Him Who comes. Other stars are Nibal=the mad;
Rakis, the bound; Surgia, the deciever.
CANIS MAJOR. Sirius, the
Prince. In Zodiac of Denderah it is Apes=the head.
In Persian Planisphere=a wolf (Heb. Sirius=the Prince. In Persian Tistrya or
Tistar=the chieftan. The next is Mirzam=the
prince. Another is Wesen=the shining, and
another=Adhara=the glorious. Many other cognant
names. (Isa.9:6; 55:4. Dan.8:23,25).
the second Dog. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is
Sebak=conquering, victorious. The brightest star is
Proyon=Redeemer. The next is Gomeisa
(Arabic)=the burdened, bearing for others. Many other
cognate names. (Isa.49:24-26; 59:19,20;
The Crab. Messiah's possessions held fast. In the Zodiac of Denderah and Esneh it is a sacred beetle. It's name there given is Klaria=cattle-folds. Arabic name is Al Sarta'n=He Who binds or holds together (Gen.49:11). The Greek name is Karkinos=encircling; the same as the Lat. Cancer, from Arabic Khan an Inn, and Ker, or Cer=encircling. The ancient Accadian is Su-kul-na=the seizer, or possessor of seed. A bright cluster is called Praesepe=a multitude or offspring. The brightest star is Tegmine=holding. Another is Acubene=the sheltering or the hidding-place. Another, Ma'alaph=assembled thousands. North and south of Praesepe are two bright stars, Assellus North and Assellus South: their sign is called the two asses, thus connecting it with Cancer, whch is the sign
of Issachar (cp. Gen.49:14. Num.2:5).
The little Bear=the lesser sheep-fld. The brightest star is Dubheh=a herd. Arabic Dubah means cattle.
Heb. Dober=a fold, from dobe'=rest or
security, rendered "strength" in Deut.33:25. See R.V. marg. All points to this (cp. Judg.5:16). The Heb. Dob=a
bear. So Arabic Dub, and the Persian Deeb or
Dob. Hence the mistake. The brightest star isAl
riccaba=the turned or ridden on, denoting it as the
Polar star. The Greeks called it Kunosoura=Cynosure, (a center of attention), but this word is Accadian.
An-nas-sur-ra=high in rising; or high in heavenly
position. The next bright star is Kochab=waiting Him Who comes.
URSA MAJOR. The great Bear=the Fold and
the Flock (Obad.17-19). In Job 9:9 and 38:31,32, it is
called 'Ash and her offspring. A.V.=Arcturus and her sons. R.V.=Bear and His train (marg., sons). Arabs still
call it Al naish or Annaish=the assmbled together as in a fold. The brightest star is Dubhe=a fock, which gives its name to the two constellations. The next is
Merach=the flock (Arabic=purchased). The next is
Phaeda or Pharda=numbered or gaurded (Ps.147:4).
Another is called Benet Naish=daughters of the
assembly. Another, Al Kaid=the assembled. Many other cognate names. (Cp. Ezek.34:12-16).
Ship=the Pilgrams, safe at home. In the Egyptian
Planisphere there are two ships (lie the two folds). They
occupy one-half of the south meridians.The brightest star
is Canopus=the possession of Him Who comes. Other
names are Sephina=the multidude. Tureis=the
possession. Asmidiska=the released who travel, &c.
(see Jer.30:10,11. Isa.60:4-9).
The Lion. Messiah's consummated triumph. In the Zodiac of Denderah it i Pi Mentikeon=the pouring out (of
Divine wrath). The three constellations crystallize the
1. Hydra=the old serpent destoyed.
Crater=the cup of wrath poured out on him.
3. Corvus=the bird of prey devouring him.
picture exibits all four in one. The Syr. name is
Ayro=the rending lion. Arab. Al Asad=the lion leaping forth as a flame. The brightest star is
Regulus=treading under foot (as pictured). The next
is Denebola=the Judge or Lord who comes. The next is Al Giebhathe exaltation. Another is
Zosma=shining forth. All others are cognate.
(Gen.49:8,9. Num.24:8,9. Amos 3:4,8. Isa.42:13).
HYDRA. The Old Serpent. Hydra=he is abhorred. The brightest star is Cor Hydra=the
heart of Hydra. Its ancient name is Al phard=the put away. Another is Al Drian=the abhored. Another is
Minchar al Sugia=the percing of the deciever.
CRATER. The Cup [of wrath poured out].
(Ps.75:75:8; 11:6. Rev.14:10; 16:19). The constellation has thirteen stars, the Biblical number for rebelion.
CORVUS. The Raven. The birds of prey
devouring. The name in the Zodiac of Denderah,
Her-na=the enemy breaking up. There are nine stars
(Biblical numerics 9=judgment). The brightest star is
Chiba (Num.23:8)=accued. Another is Minchar al
Gorab=the raven tearing to pieces.
Thus ends the Scriptures of the Heavens. This is the story they tell forth. This is the "speech" they "utter". This is the
"knowledge" they "show forth". There is no articulate
speech or voice; and no words are heard , but their sayings have gone out into all the world (Ps.19:1-6).
They are for
are the stars made for signs ('othoth from the root
'athah=to come), but for Seasons. These are not the
four seasons of the year, but Cycles of time. The figure
Polysyndeton in Gen.1:14 emphasises this: "and for seasons, and for days, and years". The word means appointed times.
(Cp. Gen.17:21; 18:14; 21:2). Thus the sun, moon, and stars are for "signs" (things to come), and for "seasons"
There are no less than ten of these cycles, all of them different; not concentric, but all of them coinciding at creation, but never since: like a number of hoops of diferent sizes hanging down from a nail. This shows that they must have had a simultanious start.
1. The cycle of 24 hours for the day, an evening and morning.
2. The revelution of the moon round the earth.
3. The lunar cycle, which began at the same moment as the solar cycle.
4. The daily revelution of the Sun,which places him on the meridian at each noon day.
5. The Solar cycle, coinciding with the first of the seven years of lunar motion and repeating itself every 365 days.
6. The beginning of the Week of seven days on the first day of the week, of the first month of the year of the first solar cycle.
7. The first Eclipse of a cycle of eighteen years and eleven days, to which the ancient astonomers gave the name Saros; each Saros containing an average of seventy eclipses, divided into two portions of 594 years and 666 years, making together 1260 years.
8. Beside these, there is the period of the Heliacal risings of Sirius, in a cycle of 162 years.
9. The Transits of Venus,
10. And the grand cycle known as the Precession of the Equinoxes.
All these combine and unite in showing that the chronology of Archbishop Usher was substantially correct. And this proves that the inflated chronology of modern historians and theologins is entirely unscientific, being the hypothesis of men who dabbled in things outside their own sphere, and of which they were incompetent to form a correct judgment.
Astronomy Picture of the Day.