B2  A1  1:3-6:14. Literal. Prophetic.
     B1  7:1-9. Symbolic. Grasshoppers. Fire. Plum-line.
    A2  7:10-17. Literal. Prophetic.
     B2  8:1-3. Symbolic. Basket of summer fruit.
    A3  8:4-14. Literal. Prophetic.
     B3  9:1-4. Symbolic. Striking the lintel.
    A4  9:5-15. Literal. Prophetic.

  Amos corresponds to Hosea, the link being Jeroboam II [2 Kings 14:27]. A native of Judah, he prophesied in Israel [1:1; 7:10], and against Israel. As Jeroboam II died in the 14th year of Uzziah king of Judah, Amos was among the earliest of all the prophets [chronologically]. Hence:

  The references to Israel's Religious History shows that the Law and Commandments were known [2:4] though not kept, but despised [2:4]; that Israel was oppressive [2:6], impure [2:7], luxurious [6:1-6]; idolatrous [2:8]; and they had had their earlier prophets [2:11; 7:14; 8:11]; that Israel alone knew the true God [3:2]; that Beth-el and Gilgal had been places of transgressions [3:14; 4:4; 5:5].

  The references to Israel's Internal History shows that the nation had once been one [3:1]; that Joseph's history was well known [6:6]; that the high place of Israel were known [7;9]; as was David [6:5].

  The references to Israel's External History show that the Exodus was known [2:10; 3:1; 5:25; 9:7]; that the nation had wandered in the wilderness [2:10; 5;25]; and were idolaters there [5:25,26]; that the Amorites had been destroyed [2:9,10]; that Gilead [1:13] and Solomon [4:11] had been destroyed.

  The references to the Ceremonial Law show that it could not have been written after the days of Amos. Note the references to Burn offerings [4:4; 5:22], and the Altar of Burnt offerings [9:1]; Meal offerings [5:22]; Peace offerings [5:22]; Thank offerings [4:5] Free-will offerings [4:5]; Feast days [5:21]; Feast of New Moon [8:5]; the Sabbath laws [8:5]; laws as to debt [8:6]; to vows [2:11,12]; to baldness for the dead [8:10]; to pledges [2:8], and many other things.

  As to the dating of Amos, it is "concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah and Jeroboam II, 2 years before the earthquake" [1:1].

  Uzziah and Jeroboam II were contemporary from the 27th year of Jeroboam till his 42nd year: i.e. 14 years [from 701-687 B.C.].

  The inference is that the earthquake and Jeroboam's end coincide; and that the "gap" of 24 years in the history of Israel was caused by, or in some way related to, the earthquake [687 B.C.], and before Zachariah began his reign of 6 months.

  "Two years before the earthquake" would be 689-688 B.C. [a jubilee year]. At that time the prophecy of Amos commenced [689 B.C.]. He declared the death of Jeroboam by the sword [7:11], and the captivity [7:11], which took place 78 years later [in 611 B.C.].

  Possibly he was "chased out" of Israel into Judah by Amaziah the priest of Beth-el, on the charge of treason against Jeroboam [7:10-17]; or he may have remained [most probably] and perished in the earthquake, as there is no reference to that catastrophe, which might be expected, if his prophecies extended beyond that great landmark in the history of Israel. It would, in that case, follow that the period covered by Amos was during those 2 years, which would be 689-687 B.C.

  The death of Jeroboam II presumably took place before, or about the time of, the earthquake.


Shows God's compassion for His Children.

689-687 B.C.
Amos 1)

1 The words of Amos (are the words of Yahaveh by Amos. See v.3. Amos = burden [for the children]), who was among the shepherds (Heb. nok'dim; so called from a peculiar breed of stunted sheep [with fine wool]. But Amos was also a herdsman, as is clear from 7:14; where boker is from bokar, an ox, and hence is connected with plowing [1 Kings 19:19,21,&c.]. See 7:14) of Tekoa (now Khan Teku'a, 5 miles south of Bethlehem, and 10 from Jerusalem. Cp. 2 Sam. 14:2. 2 Chron. 20:20.), which [words] he saw [in a vision] (cp. Num. 24:4,16. Isa. 30:10. Ezek. 12:27) concerning Israel (this gives us the subject of the book) in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam (cp. Hos. 1:1. See 7:10) the son of Joash king of Israel, two years before the earthquake. (I.e. before the one well known and remembered. Cp. Zech. 14:5.)

A1  A1  1:2-2:16. Israel, Judah, and other nations.
    A2  3:1-6:14. Israel alone.

A1  B1  D1  1:2-5. North. [Damascus.]
         E1  1:6-8. South. [Gaza.]
          C1  1:9,10. Middle. [Tyre.]
    B2   E2  1:11,12. South. [Edom.]
        D2  1:13-15. North. [Ammon.]
          C2  2:1-3. Middle. [Moab.]
    B3   E3  2:4,5. South. [Judah.]
        D3  2:6-16. North. [Israel.]

D1  a  2,3-. Transgressions. [General.]
     b  -3-. Threatening. [Negative.]
    a  -3. Transgressions. [Particular.]
     b  4,5. Threatening. [Positive.]

2 And he said (thus writing the words down.), "The LORD (Yahaveh) will roar as a lion (or, thunder. It is always, when predicated on the Lord, connected with the end of Gentile dominion. Cp. Jer. 25:30. Joel. 3:16) from Zion, and give out His voice from Jerusalem; and the pastures of the shepherds (Heb. ra'ah = tenders) shall mourn, and the top of Carmel (Mount Carmel in the north, thus embracing the whole land; now Jebel Kurmul; not Carmel in Judah [south of Hebron]; now el Kurmul. Cp. 1 Sam. 25:2. Isa. 33:9.) shall be dried up."
3 Thus says the LORD (Yahaveh's words: not the words of Amos. The Prophetic formula); "For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, (Hebrew idiom to express several, or many [Job 33:29]. Cp. Prov. 30:15,18,21,29.)

I will not turn it back (or, avert it) the punishment thereof;

because they have threshed Gilead [as it were] with threshing instruments of iron: (Cp. Joel 3:14. The very term used in 2 Kings 13:7.)

4 But I will send a fire (see Jer. 17:27; 49:27; 50:32. Hos. 8:14) into the house of Hazael (cp. 2 Kings 8:12; 10:32,33; 13:3), which shall devour the palaces (or, fortress) of Ben-hadad. (An official title of the Syrian kings = son of Hadad: i.e. the sun-god. The Ben-hadad of 2 Kings 13:3; not of 2 Kings 8:7-15.)
5 I will break also the bar (put for the gates, and then the gates put for defense of the city. Cp. Deut. 3:5. 1 Kings 4;13. Jer. 51:30. Lam. 2:9) of Damascus, and cut off the inhabitant (or, him that is seated: i.e. the ruler, corresponding with the next line) from the plain of Aven (same as Beth-aven = house of nothingness, east of Beth-el = house of God, belonging to Benjamin. Cp. Hosea 4;15; 5:8; 10:5,8), and him that holds the scepter from the house of Eden (= Beth-eden): and the people of Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir," (So in 9:7. 2 Kings 16:19. Isa. 22:6) says the LORD.

1:6-8. SOUTH. GAZA.
E1  c  6-. Transgressions. [General.]
     d  -6-. Threatening. [Negative.]
    c  -6. Transgressions. [Particular.]
     d  7,8. Threatening. [Positive.]

6 Thus says the LORD; "For three transgressions of Gaza, and for four,

I will not turn away the punishment thereof;

because they carried away captive a wholesale captivity (see Jer. 13:19. Cp. Jer. 47:1. 2 Chron. 21:16,17; 28:17), to deliver them up to Edom:

7 But I will send a fire on the wall (put for the whole city) of Gaza, which shall devour the palaces thereof:
8 And I will cut off the inhabitant from Ashdod (now Esdud, in the plain of Philistia, 35 north of Gaza), and him that holds the scepter from Ashkelon (on coast of Philistia), and I will turn My hand against Ekron (now 'Akir, 6 miles west of Gezer. For Gezer, see 1 Kings 9:15-17): and the remnant of the Philistines shall perish," has said the Lord GOD (Adonai Yehovah).

1:9,10. MIDDLE. TYRE.
C1  e  9-. Transgressions. [General.]
     f  -9-. Threatening. [Negative.]
    e  -9. Transgressions. [Particular.]
     f  10. Threatening. [Positive.]

9 Thus says the LORD; "For three transgressions of Tyrus (now es Sur. See Isa. 23. Jer. 25;22; 47:4. Also Ezek. 26-28. Joel 3:4,5), and for four,

I will not turn away the punishment thereof;

because they delivered up a wholesale captivity to Edom, and remembered not a covenant of brethren: (Cp. 2 Sam. 5:11. 1 Kings 5:1; 9:11-14.)

1:11,12. SOUTH. EDOM.
E2  g  11-. Transgressions. [General.]
     h  -11-. Threatening. [Negative.]
    g  -11. Transgressions. [Particular.]
     h  12. Threatening. [Positive.]

10 But I will send a fire on the wall of Tyrus, which shall devour the palaces thereof."

11 Thus says the LORD; "For three transgressions of Edom (cp. Isa. 21;11; 34;5. Jer. 49:8,&c. Ezek. 25:12-14; 35:2,&c. Joel 3:19. Obad. 1. Mal. 1:4), and for four,

I will not turn away the punishment thereof;

because he did pursue his brother with the sword (Gen. 47:21. Cp. Deut. 23:7. Cp. Mal. 1:2), and did cast off all pity, and his anger did tear [his prey] perpetually (Ginsberg thinks = kept his grudge. Cp. 2 Chron. 28:17), and he kept his wrath for ever:

12 But I will send a fire upon Teman (cp. Jer. 49:7. Obad. 9. Hab. 3;3. Eliphaz was a Temanite [Job 2:11,&c.), which shall devour the palaces of Bozrah." (South-east of the Dead Sea.)

1:13-15. NORTH. AMMON.
D2  j  13-. Transgressions. [General.]
     k  -13. Threatening. [Negative.]
    j  -13. Transgressions. [Particular.]
     k  14,15. Threatening. [Positive.]

13 Thus says the LORD; "For three transgressions of the sons of Ammon (cp. 1 Sam. 11:1), and for four,

I will not turn away the punishment thereof;

because they have ripped up the women with child of Gilead (foretold in Hos. 13:16. 2 Kings 8:12; 15:16), that they might enlarge their border: (Cp. Jer. 49:1.)

14 But I will kindle a fire in the wall of Rabbah (now 'Ammon [on the highlands of Gilead], "the city of waters", 25 miles north of the Dead Sea. Cp. 2 Sam. 11:1; 12:26,27. Jer. 49:2. Ref. Deut. 3:10,11), and it shall devour the palaces thereof, with a great war-cry in the day of battle (i.e. the day of their foe's tumultuous assault), with a tempest in the day of the whirlwind:
15 And their king shall go into captivity, he [priests] and his princes together," has said the LORD.

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