T² W¹ 1-3-. The speaker. W² -3-7. His words.
W¹ X¹ 1. David's mouth. X² 2-3-. Not David's words.
930 to 923 B.C.
2 Samuel 23)
1: Now these be the last words of David (hence their importance. "Words" = discourse, message, oracle, revelation). David the son of Jesse said (Heb. nâ’am = to speak with assurance and authority), and the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob (i.e. the God Who met Jacob when he had nothing and deserve nothing [but wrath], and promised him all = therefore "the God of all grace". Cp. Ps.146:5 and 1 Pet.5:10, referring to the grace which had called David), and the sweet psalmist of Israel, said, (Key of David. Divine inspiration and intervention from God not the psalmist)
2: “The Spirit of the Lord (Yahaveh) spoke by me (referring to the substance of the Divine revelation), and His word was in my tongue (Heb. millãh, used of a royal or Divine decree [Ps.19:14. Dan.3:22,28, &c.).
3: The God of Israel (the higher title [not Jacob], because human instrumentality not in question here) said (Heb. ’ãmar, referring to the matter of the Divine revelation), the Rock of Israel spoke to me, (See Ps.2)
W² n -3-. The ruler. Ideal. The Ruler, and his rule. o -3. The ideal rule. " o 4. The ideal rule. " n 5-7. The ruler. Actual. "
He that rules over mankind must be just,
ruling in the reverence (or love) of God.
o p 4-. The light. Effect in heavens. This is the q -4-. Its clearness. order in q -4-. Its clearness. Hebrew p -4. The light. Effect on earth. "
4: And He shall be (translate in present tense, describing such an ideal rule) as the light of the morning, when the sun rises, (He is always the light with youIF you look)
even a morning without clouds;
as the tender grass springing out of the earth
by clear shining after rain.
n r¹ 5. The ruler. r² 6,7. The ruled.
r¹ s 5-. David's house. t -5-. God's covenant with David. t -5-. God's covenant with David. s -5. David's house.
5: For is not my house thus through GOD? (see 22:31);
For He has made a Covenant, ordered in all things, and sure (2 Sam.7):
For this Covenant is all my salvation, and all my desire,
For shall He not cause it to prosper?
r² u 6-. The sons of Belial. Put to flight. v -6. How they cannot be ruled. v 7-. How they can be ruled. u -7. The sons of Belial. Consumed.
6: But the sons of Belial (i.e. Satan) shall be all of them as thorns put to flight (chased away. He is speaking of the tares),
because they cannot be handled with hands:
7: But the man that shall touch them must be furnished with iron and the staff of a spear;
and they shall be utterly burned with fire on the spot.”
J Y 8-. Names. Z -8-24-. Principal. Z -24-39-. Subordinate. Y -39. Number.
8: These be the names of the mighty men whom David had (Heb. gibbor. This rehearsal comes at the end of David's reign, immediately before the setting up of the kingdom under Solomon. Even so will it be, at the time of the end, with the true David):
Z A w¹ -8-. Adino. x¹ -8. His achievement. w² 9. Eleazar. x² 10. His achievement. w³ 11. Shammah. x³ 12. His achievement. B 13-17. Three together. A w4 18-. Abishai. x4 -18,19. Achievement and rank. w5 20-. Benaiah. x5 -20-23. Achievement and rank. w6 24-. Asahel.
The Tachmonite that sat in the seat (A.V. marg. and R.V. text = "Jsheb-bassebet the Tachmonite". Really = Ish-bosheth, put for Ish-ball = "man of Baal, son of a Hachmonite" [cp. 1 Chron.11:11], altered later to Adino. Cp. St. Peter's exploit [Acts 2], and Stephen's [Acts 6:7]), chief among the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite: he lift up his spear against eight hundred (see Chron = 300), whom he slew at one time.
9: And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the three mighty men with David, when they defied the Philistines that were there gathered together to battle, and the men of Israel were gone away (This history follows the promise made. This is the time for true courage to be manifested. Cp. v.11. 2 Tim.1:15; 4:16,17):
10: He arose, and smote the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand clave to the sword: and the Lord wrought a great victory that day (cp. .12, and see Acts 14:27; 15:4,12; 21:19); and the people returned after him only to spoil.
11: And after him was Shammah (like Acts 14:3) the son of Agee the Hararite. And the Philistines were gathered together into a troop (probably = the place, Lehi), where was a piece of ground full of lentiles (see 1 Chron.11:13): and the people fled from the Philistines (see "gone away", v.9).
12: But he stood in the midst of the ground, and defended it, and slew the Philistines: and the Lord wrought a great victory (God used him to accomplish the victory. See v.10).
13: And three of the thirty chief went down (see 1 Chron.27:1), and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Repha (a noted descendant of the Nephilim. See Gen.6:2,4).
14: And David was then in a fort (or garrison), and the garrison of the Philistines was then in Bethlehem.
15: And David longed, and said, “Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate!”
16: And the three (the 3 referred to in v.13) mighty men broke through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David: nevertheless he would not drink thereof, but poured it out to the Lord.
17: And he said, “Be it far from me, O Lord, that I should do this: shall I drink the blood of the men that went with their souls in their own hands?” ("soul" [nephesh], put by Fig., for "blood", which is another name for it. Cp. Gen.9:4. Lev.17:11. Deut.12:23.) therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mighty men. (Champions for God)
18: And Abishai (mentioned in 10:10,14; 16:9; 18:2; 19:2. 1 Sam.26:6-9), the brother of Joab, the son of Zeruiah, he was chief of the three. And he lifted up his spear against three hundred, and slew them, and had the name among three.
19: Was he not most honorable of the second three? therefore he was their captain: however he attained not to the first three.
20: And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man, of Kabzeel, who had done many acts, he slew two lion-like men of Moab (men of Ariel.Ariel, proper name, occ. only here and twice in Isa.29:1,2): he went down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in time of snow (all these have the Article, as being a well-known exploit):
21: And he slew an Egyptian, a goodly man (of appearance. Heb. = a sight to see. 1 Chron.11:23 = stature): and the Egyptian had a spear in his hand; but he went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own spear (often done now spiritually by the servants of the true David).
22: These things did Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and had the name among three mighty men.
23: He was more honourable than the thirty, but he attained not to the first three. And David set him over his guard.
24: Asahel(the 3rd of the second 3) the brother of Joab (but not Joab. His name here but not himself, because when the time of the end comes, with its "last words", loyalty will be the one test. Joab remained true in Absalom's rebellion, but fell away in Adonijah's. Hence in 1 Cor.16:22 "love" is the test, in the light of "Maran-atha", not the "stifes" of Ch.3, or the wrong judgments of Ch.4, or the uncleanness of Ch.5, or going to law of Ch.6; not the fornication of Ch7, nor a wrong conscience of Chs.9,10, not ecclesiastical disorders of Ch.11, not the misuse of special gifts Chs.12,13,14, not orthodoxy Ch.15, but "love" and loyalty to the person of Christ, the true David, David's son and David's Lord) was one of the thirty; Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem,
25: Shammah the Harodite, Elika the Harodite,
26: Helez the Paltite, Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite,
27: Abiezer the Anethothite, Mebunnai the Hushathite,
28: Zalmon the Ahohite, Maharai the Netophathite,
29: Heleb the son of Baanah, a Netophathite, Ittai the son of Ribai out of Gibeah of the sons of Benjamin,
30: Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hiddai of the brooks of Gaash,
31: Abi-albon the Arbathite, Azmaveth the Barhumite,
32: Eliahba the Shaalbonite, of the sons of Jashen, Jonathan,
33: Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam the son of Sharar the Hararite,
34: Eliphelet the son of Ahasbai, the (probably "Hanan", the son, &c. [1 Chron.11:43], making the 3 named in this verse) son of the Maachathite, Eliam the son of Ahithophel (but not Ahithophel himself, on account of his disloyalty. See v.24) the Gilonite,
35: Hezrai the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite,
36: Igal the son of Nathan of Zobah, Bani the Gadite,
37: Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai the Beerothite, armourbearer to Joab (Joab's armourbearer named, but not Joab himself. See v.24) the son of Zeruiah,
38: Ira an Ithrite, Gareb an Ithrite,
39: Uriah the Hittite (is doubly honored, being named with his son; Bu Joab or Ahithophel are not named. Read Jer.9:23,24): thirty and seven in all (#37 = The Word of God.).