F6 c 1,2. Introduction. Accession. d 3,4. Events. Personal. d 5. Events. Political. c 6,7. Conclusion. Death.
2 Kings 15)
1 In the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam king of Israel (so in 2 Chron. 26:1-3. Azariah being then 16 [v. 2], and therefore only 3 on the death of his father Amaziah. Hence, there was 1 years interregnum [16-3 = 13]. Amaziah died in the 14th year of Jeroboam. Therefore Azariah begn to reign in the 27th year of Jeroboam [13 + 14 = 27]. This is the 27th year of Jeroboam's partnershp with his father on his going to the Syrian wars) began Azariah (= Uzziah. See 14:21) son of Amaziah king of Judah to reign.
2 Sixteen years old was he when he began to reign, and he reigned fifty-two years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name [was] Jecholiah of Jerusalem.
3 And he did [that which was] right in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his father Amaziah had done (i.e. he began well, but see 2 Chron. 26:3-23);
4 Save that the high places were not removed (cp. 1 Kings 12:31): the People sacrificed and burnt incense still on the high places.
5 And Jehovah smote the king (Chronicles comes in here to explain why. See 2 Chron. 26:16-21, and note on "Kings" in title of 1 Kings), so that he was a leper unto the day of his death (1 of 9 afflicted with leprosy. See Ex.4:6. No reason is given here, but it is given in the Chronicles according to the object of the latter Book. See note above), and dwelt in a lazar house (see v.7). And Jotham the king's son [was] over the house (or palace: i.e. the king's house, as regent or co-regent), judging the People of the land.
6 And the rest of the acts of Azariah, and all that he did, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? (For details see 2 Chron.26:1-15. The writings of Hosea, Joel, Amos, and Jonah belong to this period: from the latter days of Joash [king of Judah] to the end of Uzziah. See the notes on the events in these reigns in their respective prophecies. They foretell the doom of Judah)
7 So Azariah slept with his fathers (in the year of his death [649 B.C.] Isaiah had his vision [Isa. 6:1-9. John 12:41], when the "voice" from the Temple prophesied the Dispersion [see the Structure of Isaiah]. Uzziah had been driven from the Temple to lazar house, when Isaiah saw the vision of the Temple in heaven); and they buried him with his fathers in the city of David: and Jotham his son reigned in his stead (= Yahaveh is Upright. The first-named of the 4 kings in whose reign Isaiah prophesied [Isa. 1:1]. Micah also began to prophecy and mourn over the coming dispersion of Israel. In his stead - there had been an interregnum of 11 or 12 years).
E7 N¹ 8-12. Zachariah. N² 13-16. Shallum. N³ 17-22. Menahem. N4 23-26. Pekahiah. N5 27-31. Pekah.
N¹ e 8. Introduction. Accession. f 9. Events. Personal. f 10. Events. Political. e 11,12. Conclusion. Record and death.
8 In the thirty-eighth year of Azariah king of Judah (cp. with 14:29. Jeroboam died in the 14th year of Azariah [or Uzziah]. There must have been an interregnum of 24 years. See also 15:1) did Zachariah (= remembered by Yehovah) the son of Jeroboam reign over Israel in Samaria six months.
9 And he did [that which was] evil in the sight of the Lord, according as his fathers had done: he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin (see 1 Kings 14:16).
10 And Shallum (= retribution) the son of Jabesh conspired against him, and smote him before the People (as prophesid [Amos 7:9]), and slew him, and reigned in his stead.
11 And the rest of the acts of Zachariah, behold, they [are] written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel.
12 This [was] the word of the Lord which He spoke to Jehu (cp. 10:30 and Hos.1:4), saying, “Your sons shall sit on the throne of Israel unto the fourth [generation].” And so it came to pass.
N² g 13. Introduction. Accession. h 14. Event. Personal. g 15. Conclusion. Record. h 16. Events. Political.
13 Shallum the son of Jabesh began to reign in the thirty-ninth year of Uzziah king of Judah (see 14:21); and he reigned a full month in Samaria.
14 For Menahem (= comforter) the son of Gadi went up from Tirzah (= delight. The capital before Samaria [1 Kings 14:17; 15:21; 16:8]. Now Telluzah, about 9 miles north of Samari), and came to Samaria (= watch mountain), and smote Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria, and slew him, and reigned in his stead.
15 And the rest of the acts of Shallum, and his conspiracy which he made, behold, they [are] written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel.
16 Then Menahem smote Tiphsah (Tiphsah is not a person but a location, a city that that lies on the Euphrates and is referred to in 1 Kings 4:24 as the limit to Solomon’s empire towards the Euphrates to the North), and all that [were] therein, and the borders thereof from Tirzah: because they opened not [to him], therefore he smote [it; and] all the women therein that were with child he ripped up (Tiphsah revolted of Israel at the time that Zechariah was murdered. And here they are paying a very cruel punishment for that revolt).
N³ i 17. Introduction. Accession. k 18. Events. Personal. k 19,20. Events. Political. i 21,22. Conclusion. Record. Death.
662 to 652 B.C.
17 In the thirty-ninth year of Azariah king of Judah (see 14 21) began Menahem the son of Gadi to reign over Israel, [and reigned] ten years in Samaria (their names are mentioned, together with Rezin [16:9], in Tiglath-pilesar's inscriptions. And you know, God wanted to be the king of Israel but what did the people of Israel say to Samuel? No, we want a man king like the heathen have. Someone who will go and fight our battles for us. I think that man is becoming somewhat disappointed and the kings of Israel a little bit less than they expected but the man kings of Israel are exactly what our Father expected).
18 And he did [that which was] evil in the sight of the Lord: he departed not all his days from any of the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin (see 1 Kings 14:16. You know when Israel was asking for a man king, God told them through Samuel in 1 Samuel chapter 8 verse 10 and the following verses, what men-kings of Israel would do. They’ll take your sons and daughters. They’ll make them work for you. Everything you do to produce your vineyards, your olive yards, they will take 10 percent of that and give it to their servants, and then they’ll take your sons and send them to do the fighting for you. For the king in other words).
19 [And] Pul (= lord. Thought to be the same as Tiglath-pileser [a throne name]. But see 1 Chron.5:26) the king of Assyria (Here we go, our type for the antichrist. This is the first invasion on Israel by the Assyrian and it won’t be the last, and there is still one to come in the future) came against the land (probably by invitation of Menahem. Cp. Hos.5:13; 7:11; 8:9): and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver (approx. 100,000 lbs), that his hand might be with him to confirm the kingdom in his hand (He’s trusting in the king of Assyria to keep him as king of Israel rather than trusting in our heavenly Father, and paying him off to do so.)
20 And Menahem exacted the money of Israel (And Judah was usually the one trying to bribe the enemy, not Israel, but in this case they are, see [12:18; 16:8; 18:15]), [even] of all the mighty men of wealth, of each man fifty shekels of silver (= 25 oz.), to give to the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria turned back, and stayed not them in the land (Heb. shãm. Cp. Judg.5:11. Ps.14:5. Now the Assyrians will be back. You know you can’t buy a bully off. Never try and buy a bully off because what you’ll give him, he’ll always be back for more).
21 And the rest of the acts of Menahem, and all that he did, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel? (And I’m certain God must have been quite frustrated with the kings of Israel, the men who served in that role.)
22 And Menahem slept with his fathers; and Pekahiah his son reigned in his stead. (Pekahiah means Yah has observed. And you can be rest assured that Yah was observing this Pekahiah and Israel at the time. You can be assured He is observing you and I today. I hope He’s pleased.)
N4 l 23. Introduction. Accession. m 24. Events. Personal. m 25. Events. Political. l 26. Conclusion. Record.
651 to 649 B.C.
23 In the fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah (from v.17 there appears to be an interregnum of some months. Also known as Uziah. By the way he reigned 52 years, the longest king of Israel or Judah) Pekahiah (= whose eyes the Lord opened) the son of Menahem began to reign over Israel in Samaria, [and reigned] two years (And becoming a king of Israel at this time was like an early death wish. Menahem was the last king of Israel to die a natural death and his son assumed the throne).
24 And he did [that which was] evil in the sight of the Lord: he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. (Jeroboam was the first king of the 10 tribes over to the North after the kingdom was taken away from Solomon’s son Rehoboam. But you know, God made Jeroboam the same promise that He made to Solomon. And that is IF you will follow my commandments, IF you will do things my way, I’ll be with you. I’ll bless you. What did Jeroboam do? Oh he decides, "Huh, let see… there’s 7 feasts of the Lord, let’s have an 8th one, in the 8th month!" It wasn’t appointed by God. Jeroboam also said, "Well, these Levitical priests, they won’t do what I want them to. The heck with them! I want them out of office! I’m going to appoint my own priests." And that’s what he did. And to top it all off, he makes the 2 golden calves just like Aaron did when Moses was receiving the law, he put one in Dan and one in Bethel and he said, "Behold thy God that brought you out of Egypt." He then told the people of Israel, "You don’t have to go down to Jerusalem to worship at the temple of God. These are your gods. Stay here in Samaria and worship.")
25 But Pekah (= open-eyed. See Isa.7:1. Pekah is kind of a version of Pekahiah which means to watch and this Pekah needed to be watched) the son of Remaliah, a captain of his, conspired against him, and smote him in Samaria, in the palace of the king's house, with Argob and Arieh, and with him fifty men of the Gileadites: and he killed him, and reigned in his room (Murderers serving as the king of Israel. Total chaos, total corruption in Israel at this time).
26 And the rest of the acts of Pekahiah, and all that he did, behold, they [are] written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel. (Israel at this point is on a collision course with the captivity to the Assyrian. And you know what? We’re on a collision course to the captivity to the king of Assyria as well. Isaiah was prophesying this same thing at this time. And Isaiah by the way prophesied during the reign of four different kings of Judah. I mean Isaiah was around a long time and he was telling them this is what’s coming).
N5 n 27. Introduction. Accession. o 28. Events. Personal. o 29,30. Events. Political. n 31. Conclusion. Record.
649 to 629 B.C.
27 In the fifty-second year of Azariah king of Judah Pekah the son of Remaliah began to reign over Israel in Samaria, [and reigned] twenty years (The Assyrian inscription shows only 4 years. But why is writing on stone always assumed to be correct, and on parchment, always wrong? Example: There were two chronological mistakes on the Duke of Cambridge's monument erected in Whitehall, London, which were the subject of a correspondence in the London newspapers of that date. [The Duke died in March, 1904]. On the coffin-plate of King Edward VII, his death is put as occurring in the "ninth" instead of the "tenth" year of his reign. In the inscriptions of Darius Hystaspis on the Behistum Rock (see app. 57 in Companion Bible), no less than 14 "mistakes" made by the graver [one of them actually corrected by himself] are noted as such by the authors of the exhaustive work on that subject issued by the Trustees of the British Museum. A very long reign for one of these final kings of Israel, but he won’t die a natural death.).
28 And he did [that which was] evil in the sight of the Lord: he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin (They just wouldn’t listen to the prophets that God sent; prophet after prophet, trying to get the people to turn back to our heavenly Father.)
29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria (see note on "Pul", v.19), and took Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead (these names are mentioned in Tiglath's own inscriptions), and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria (this deportation took place in 734 B.C., and is referred to in Isaiah, chapter 9, verse 12. Now this is not all of Israel going into captivity, but it is a big, big chunk of it).
30 And Hoshea (= salvation) the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah (i.e. in 629 B.C. This was 9 years before he succeeded in obtaining the throne, which was in the 12th year of Ahaz [17:1]. In v.33, 16 years. So this 20th year must be reckoned from his father's being struck with leprosy, as distinctly stated in v.5. You want to be king of Israel at this point, what do you have to do? You have to murder the previous king, but you better have some pretty good bodyguards because the next one’s going to be after you).
31 And the rest of the acts of Pekah, and all that he did, behold, they [are] written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel.
F7 O¹ 15:32-38. Jotham. O² 16:1-20. Ahaz.
O¹ p 32,33. Introduction. q 34. Events. Personal. r 35. Events. Public. r 36. Events. Public. q 37. Event. Personal. p 38. Conclusion.
32 In the second year of Pekah the son of Remaliah king of Israel began Jotham (= Yahaveh is Upright) the son of Uzziah king of Judah to reign.
33 Twenty-five years old was he when he began to reign, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem (i.e. from his accession, on the death of Uzziah his father, for whom he reigned 4 years. See v.30 above). And his mother's name [was] Jerusha, the daughter of Zadok (= just. The high priest [1 Chron. 6:12]. Perhaps this is why he invaded the priest's office).
34 And he did [that which was] right in the sight of the Lord: he did according to all [the good] that his father Uzziah had done.
35 However the high places were not removed: the people sacrificed and burned incense still in the high places. He built the higher gate of the house of the Lord (cp. 2 Chron. 27:3).
36 Now the rest of the acts of Jotham, and all that he did, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? (cp. 2 Chron. 27:2-8)
37 In those days the Lord began to send against Judah Rezin the king of Syria (= firm. The war which broke out in the reign of Ahaz was already threatening. Cp. Isa. 7:1-16), and Pekah the son of Remaliah.
38 And Jotham slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father: and Ahaz his son reigned in his stead.