1 Samuel 18)
1: And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking to Saul, that the soul of Jonathan (chief prince of Israel. At this time he was about 40; and about 53-54 when he died. He would be about 24 years older than David, and his love was maternal in character. He did not have one jealous bone in his body for David. Ish-bosheth, Saul's second son, was 40 at his father's death [2 Sam.2:10]) was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul.
2: And Saul took him that day, and would let him go no more home to his father's house.
3: Then Jonathan and David solemnized a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul.
4: And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle. (a custom to show respect, confidence, and brotherly love)
5: And David went out to which ever place Saul sent him, and behaved himself wisely: and Saul set him over the men of war, and he was accepted in the sight of all the People, and also in the sight of Saul's servants.
6: And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing (a great celebration. Twice referred to later [21:11; 29:5]. Cp. subscription of Ps. 52, which is mahãlath = "the great dancing"
A 1-5. David's apostrophe to Goliath and Doeg.
B 6,7. The righteous onlookers.
A 8,9. David's praise to God.
), to meet king Saul, with drums (of various sizes), with joy, and with instruments of music.
7: And the women answered one another as they played, and said, “Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.”
8: And Saul was very wroth (Saul became jealous. Satan's tool), and this saying displeased him; and he said, “They have ascribed to David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed but thousands: and what can he have more but the kingdom?”
9: And Saul eyed (the evil eye) David from that day and forward.
10: And it came to pass on the next day, that the evil spirit from God (Elohim) came upon Saul (see 16:16. God didn't create it, He allowed it), and he prophesied in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and there was a javelin in Saul's hand.
11: And Saul cast the javelin (another attempt of Satan to thwart Yahaveh's purpose in Gen.3:15, and prevent the "seed o the woman" from coming into the world. See also Structure of "V" [19:9–20:1-.]); for he said, “I will smite David even to the wall with it.” And David avoided out of his presence twice.
W E 18:12-16. Saul's fear of David. F 18:17-27. Machinations against David. E 18:28-30. Saul's fear of David. F 19:1-7. Aggressions against David.
E i¹ 12-15. Saul's fear. i² 16. The People's love.
i¹ j 12-. Fear. k -12. Reason. l 13. Promotion. l 14. Propriety. k 15-. Reason. j -15. Fear.
12: And Saul was apprehensive of David,
because the Lord was with him, and was departed from Saul. (Ch. 16:14-23 comes in here, chronologically. It is placed after 16:1-13 by Fig. Hysterologia, in order to lay bare to us the secret workings underneath the history. See notes on 16:14; 17:1)
13: Therefore Saul removed him from him, and made him his captain over a thousand (In actuality this was a demotion, not a promotion. David did not complain); and he went out and came in before the People.
14: And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways; and the Lord was with him. (this is an unbeatable combination!)
15: Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely,
he was afraid of him.
16: But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he went out and came in before them.
17: And Saul said to David, “Behold my elder daughter Merab (= increase), her will I give you to wife: only be you valiant for me, and fight the Lord's battles.” For Saul said, “Let not mine hand be upon him, but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him.” (he's going to send him out to battle. Cp. David and Uriah. 2 Sam. 11:15)
18: And David said to Saul, “Who am I? and what is my life, or my father's family in Israel, that I should be son in law to the king?”
19: But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should have been given to David, that she had already been given (this is the key to 20:30) to Adriel the Meholathite to wife (nothing known of him).
20: And Michal (= who is like God) Saul's daughter loved David: and they told Saul, and the thing pleased him.
21: And Saul said, “I will give him her, that she may be a snare to him, and that the hand of the Philistines may be against him.” Wherefore Saul said to David, “You shall this day be my son in law in the one of the twain.” (he's going to require one of two things)
22: And Saul commanded his servants, saying, “Commune with David secretly, and say, ‘Behold, the king has delight in you (this is a lie), and all his servants love you: now therefore be the king's son in law.’ ”
23: And Saul's servants spoke those words in the ears of David. And David said, “Seem it to you a light thing to be a king's son in law, seeing that I am a poor man, and lightly esteemed?” (David is rich, but doesn't realize it [spiritually] & of seed line)
24: And the servants of Saul told him, saying, “On this manner spoke David.”
25: And Saul said, “Thus shall you all say to David, ‘The king desires not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies.’ ” But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines. (this is a conspiracy)
26: And when his servants told David these words, it pleased David well to be the king's son in law: and the days were not expired (the days he would accomplish this had not even started yet).
27: Wherefore David arose and went, he and his men, and slew of the Philistines two hundred men; and David brought their foreskins, and they (i.e. Saul's servants. Sept. ad Vulg. read "he") gave them in full tale to the king, that he might be the king's son in law. And Saul gave him Michal his daughter to wife.
28: And Saul saw and knew that the Lord
was with David, and that Michal Saul's daughter loved him (Sept. reads "all Israel", accounting for his greater fear [v.29]. Love is the strongest force in the world).
29: And Saul was yet the more afraid of David; and Saul became David's enemy continually. (Beware & cautious. Satan's main method of operation is to compliment, and then the trap is set!)
30: Then the princes of the Philistines went forth: and it came to pass, whenever (or, as often as) they went forth, that David behaved himself more wisely than all the servants of Saul; so that his name was much set by. (He had to be on guard or he would have been dead)