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1 and 2

SAMUEL.

The Structure of the Two Books* as a Whole.


A  1 Sam. 1:1-7:17. Rule under the RULERS.

A 1 Sam. 8:1 - 2 Sam. 24:25. Rule under the KINGS.

1 Sam.8:1 - 2 Sam. 24:25. RULE UNDER THE KINGS.

AB 1 Sam. 8:1 - 2 Sam. 1:27. King Saul.

B 2 Sam. 2:1 - 2 Sam. 24:25. King David.

2 Sam. 2:1 - 24:25. KING DAVID.

B C2 Sam. 2:1 - 4:12. Kingdom Divided.

C 2 Sam. 5:1 - 24:25. Kingdom United.

  *It is necessary that the 2 Books should be treated as one; because in the Hebrew Canon (as given in the MSS. and early printed editions of the Hebrew text), the two are, and always have been, presented and reckoned as one Book.

  They were first divided, and treated as two, by the Septuagint Translators (3rd cent. B.C.). And this division has been followed in all subsequent versions.

  Probably, scrolls were more or less equal in length; and, as Greek requires at least 1/3 more space than Hebrew, one scroll was filled before the translation of the one long book of 55 chapters was completed. Hence, the poor division. Of the 34 Sedarim (or cycles for public reading), the 20th begins with 1 Sam. 30:25 and ends with 2 Sam.2:6, showing no break in the text.

  The same applies to the 2 so-called Books of Kings; for Kings also made a long Book of 47 chapters, and came to be divided in the same way, the 4 being numbered respectively the "First, Second, Third, Fourth Book of the Kingdoms"; and, in the Vulgate, "of the Kings". In no Hebrew MS. or early printed edition is the Book found divided in two. The 35 divisions, called Sedarim, are numbered throughout without regard to any division: the 19th beginning with 1 Kings 22:43 and ending with 2 Kings 2:14. This division must have been governed by the exigencies of the parchment, or the break would not have been made in the midst of the reign of Ahaziah and the ministry of Elijah.

  The one Book, Chronicles, consisting of 65 chapters, came under the same treatment. There are 25 Sedarim (or cycles for public reading), of which the 11th begins with 1 Chron.28:10 and ends with 2 Chron.2:2, showing no break in the text. For the division of Ezra - Nehemiah, see notes there.

  The Structure of these 4 "Books of the Kingdoms" may be exibited thus:

XY2 Sam.2:14:12. The Divided Kingdom.
 Z2 Sam. 5:124:25. The United Kingdom.
Z1 Kings 1:112:15. The United Kingdom.
Y1 Kings 12:162 Kings 25:38. The Divided Kingdom.

  The Books of Samuel follow on Judges, an yet hold a peculiar place of their own, looking backward and forward. Heb. Shemel = Asked of God, or God-heard, and the impression of this is left on the Books (chs.8,9,16, and 2 Sam. 7). As to authorship, cp. 1 Chron. 29:29, which shows that the prophets kept up the national records, which accounts for such passages as 1 Sam. 27:6. In the Books of Samuel and Kings, events are viewed from the human and exoteric standpoint, while in Chronicles the same events are viewed from the Divine and esoteric standpoint. Examples of these abound.

Parallel Passages of the Historical Books.

  The following Table, showing 111 parallel passages between the Books of Samuel and Kings on the one hand, and the Books of Chronicles on the other, will be useful.

   1. It will be show the mutual relation of the sections, and will enable the reader to find at a glance the corresponding portions, and thus serve the purpose of ordinary and ready reference.

   2. It will help to exhibit the special design of these two great principles governing the whole of these Books.

  In the former (Samuel and Kings) we have, for the most part, the same history, but from the esoteric point of view.

  In the former we have the event viewed from the human standpoint, as they would be seen by the natural eye; in the later we have the same events viewed from the Divine standpoint, and as seen and understood by the spiritual mind.

  Consequently, while in the former we have the event in its historical aspect; in the later we have it in its moral aspect. In the former we have the historic record; in the later we have the Divine reason for it, or the Divine "words" and judgment on it (cp. Saul's death, 1 Sam.31:5, and 1 Chron. 10:13,14).

  It is this principle which determines the amount of literary space according to the same historic event. For example: in the former Books we have 3 Chapters (or 88 verses) given to the secular events of Hezekiah's reign (2 Kings 18,19,20), and only 3 verses (2 Kings 18:4-6) given to his great religious reformation. In Chronicles this is exactly reversed. 3 Chapters (or 84 verses) are devoted to his reformation (2 Chron. 29-31), while 1 Chapter (or 32 verses) suffices for the secular events of his reign.

  In the same way Jehoshaphat's 3 alliances with Ahab can be spiritually and morally understood only from 2 Chron. 17, of which there is not a word in Kings.

  3. This principle determines also the order in which the events are treated. In the Book of Kings the events are recorded in chronological order; while in Chronicles this order is sometimes ignored, in order to bring the moral causes or consequences of the two events together, for the purposes of comparison or contrast. (Cp. the list of David's mighty men; David's numbering of the People, and the account of the plague).

   4. The object of these two great principles is further seen in the fact that the design of the former is to give the whole story of Israel's kingdom complete; while the design of the latter is to give only that which pertains to the house of David and the tribe of Judah, as being founded on Yehovah's covenant i 2 Sam. 7 and 1 Chron. 17.

   5. The conclusion is that the Book of Chronicles is entirely independent of the Books of Samuel and Kings; and that the differences between them are independent and designed. The critics create their own difficulties by first assuming that the Books ought to be alike; and then, because they are not what they are assumed to be, treating the variations as "discrepancies" or "corruptions of the text"; instead of as being full of Divine instructions "written for our learning".

The following is the table:

1 Sam.27...............1 Chron.12:1-7.
"29:1-3..........."12:19-22.
"31..............."10.
2 Sam.5:1-5............"11:1-3.
"5:5-10..........."11:4-9.
"5:11-16.........."14:1-7.
"5:17-25.........."14:8-17.
"6:1-11..........."13.
"6:12-23.........."15 & 16.
"7................"17.
"8................"18.
"10..............."19.
"11:1-27.........."20:1.
"12:29-31........."20:1-3.
"23:8-39.........."11:10-47.
"24:1-9..........."21:1-6; 27:23,24.
"24:10-17........."21:7-17.
"24:18-24........."21:18-22:1.
1 Kings 2:1. .........."23:1.
"2:1-4.........."28:20,21.
"2:10-12........"29:23-30.
"2:46...........2 Chron.1:1.
"3:4-15........."1:2-13.
"5.............."2.
"6.............."3:1-14; 4:9.
"7:15-21........"3:15-17.
"7:23-26........"4:2-5.
"7:38-46........"4:6,10,17.
"7:47-50........"4:18-22.
"7:51..........."5:1.
"8.............."5:2-7:10.
"9:1-9.........."7:11-22.
"9:10-25........"8.
"10:1-13........"9:1-12.
"10:14-25......."9:13-24.
"10:26-29......."9:25-28; 1:14-17.
"11:41-43......."9:29-31.
"12:1-19........"10.
"12:21-24......."11:1-4.
"12:25.........."11:5-12.
"12:26-31......."11:13-17.
"14:22-24......."12:1.
"14:25-28......."12:2-12.
"14:21,29-31...."12:13-16.
"15:1..........."13:1,2.
"15:6..........."13:2-21.
"15:7,8........."13:22; 14:1.
"15:11,12......."14:1-5.
"15:13-15......."15:16-18.
"15:16-22......."16:1-6.
"15:23,24......."16:11-14.
"22:1-40,44....."18.
"22:41-43......."17:1; 20:31-33.
"22:45.........."20:34.
"22:47-49......."20:35-37.
"22:50.........."21:1.
2 Kings 1:1; 3:4,5....."20:1-3.
"8:16-19........"21:2-7.
"8:20-22........"21:8-15.
"8:23,24........"21:18-20.
"8:25-27........"22:1-4.
"8:28,29; 9:1-28.."22:5-7,9.
"10:11-14......."22:8.
"11:1-3........."22:10-12.
"11:4-20........"23.
"11:21; 12:1-3.."24:1-3.
"12:6-16........"24:4-14.
"12:17,18......."24:23,24.
"12:19-21......."24:25-27.
"14:1-6........."25:1-4.
"14:7..........."25:11-16.
"14:8-14........"25:17-24.
"14:17-20......."25:25-28.
"14:21,22; 15:1-4."26:1-15.
"15:6,7,27,28..."26:22,23.
"15:32-35......."27:1-8.
"15:38.........."27:9.
"16:1,2........."28:1,2.
"16:3,4,6......."28:3-8.
"16:7..........."28:16-19.
"15:29.........."28:20.
"16:8-18........"28:21-25.
"16:19,20......."28:26,27.
"18:1-3........."29:1,2.
"18:13..........Isa.36:1.
"18:14-16....... 2 Chron.32:2-8.
"20:1-11........"32:24. Isa. 38.
"20:12-19.......Isa.39:1-8.
"18:17-37.......2 Chron.32:9-19. Isa.36:2-22.
"19:1-5........."32:20.Isa.37:1-4.
"19:6,7.........Isa.37:6,7.
"19:8-19........2 Chron.32:17. Isa.37:8-20.
"19:20-37......."32:21. Isa.37:21-38.
"20:20,21......."32:32,33.
"21:1-16........"33:1-9.
"21:17,18......."33:18-20.
"21:19-26......."33:21-25.
"22:1,2........."34:1-7.
"22:3-20........"34:8-28.
"23:1-3........."35:1-19.
"23:21-23......."35:1-19.
"23:24-26......."34:33.
"23:28-30......."35:20-27.
"23:30-33......."36:1-3.
"23:34-37......."36:4,5.
"24:8,9........."36:9.
"24:15-17......."36:10.
"24:18,19......."36:11,12.
"24:20.........."36:13-16.
"25:8-21........"36:18-21.

  The Book of Samuel commences with the history of Eli and Samuel, and contains a account of the establishment of the Hebrew monarchy and of the reigns of Saul and David, with the exception of the last days of the latter monarch, which are related in the beginning of the Books of Kings, of which those of Samuel form the previous portion.

  1. AS TO AUTHORSHIP. In common with all the historical Books of the O.T., except the beginning of Nehemiah, the Book of Samuel contains no mention in the text of the name of it author. It is indisputable that the title "Samuel" does not imply that the prophet was the author of the Book of Samuel as a whole; for the death of Samuel is recorded in the beginning of the 25th Chapter. In our own time the most prevalent idea in the Anglican Church seems to have been that the first 24 Chapters of the Book of Samuel were written by the prophet himself, and the rest of the Chapters by the prophets Nehemiah and Gad. This, however, is doubtful.

  2. But although the authorship cannot be ascertained with certainty, it appears clear that, in its present form, it must have been composed subsequent to the session of the 10 tribes 975 B.C.. This results from the passage in 1 Sam. 27:6, wherein it is said of David, "The Achish gave him Ziklag that day: wherefore Ziklag pertains to the kings of Judah to this day:" for neither Saul, David nor Solomon is in a single instance called king of Judah simply. On the other hand, it could have hardly have been written later then the reformation of Josiah, since it seems to have been composed at a time when the Pentateuch was not acted on as the rule of religious observances, which received a special impetus at the finding of the Book of the Law at the reformation of Josiah. All, therefore, that can be asserted with any certainty is that the Book, as a whole, can scarcely have been composed later than the reformation of Josiah, and that it could not have existed in its present form earlier than the reign of Rehoboam.

  The Book of Samuel is one of the best specimens of Hebrew prose in the golden age of Hebrew literature. In prose it holds the same place which Joel and the undisputed prophecies of Isaiah hold in poetical or prophetical language.

THE FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL,

Otherwise called,

THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS.

1:17:17. Rule Under Rulers.

AA1:14:1-. The provocation of Israel.
B4:-17:2-. Subjection by Philistines.
A7:-2-6. The repentance of Israel.
B7:7-17. Deliverance from Philistines.

1:14:1-. Provocation of Israel.

AC1:1-3-. Elkanah and family.
D1:-3. The sons of Eli.
C1:42:11. Elkanah and family.
D2:12-17. The sons of Eli.
C2:18-21. Elkanah and family.
D2:22-25. The sons of Eli.
C42:26. Elkanah's son, Samuel.
D42:27-36. Eli and his sons.
C53:1-10. Elkanah's son, Samuel.
D53:11-18. Eli and his sons.
C63:194:1-. Elkanah's son, Samuel.

about 1064 to 1061 B.C.
1 Samuel 1)

1: Now there was a certain man of Ramathaim-zophim (= the two heights of the watchers), of the hill country of Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah (= EL [God]-provided, acquired by God, i.e. perhaps in exchange for firstborn (Num. 3:13,45), a son of Korah. See Ex.6:24), the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite:
2: And he had two wives; the name of the one was Hannah (= Grace), and the name of the other Peninnah (= Pearl. Note the fig. of speech): and Peninnah had offspring, but Hannah had no offspring.
3: And this man went up out of his city yearly (Heb. "from days to days". Fig., to emphasize the regularity) to worship and to sacrifice to the Lord of hosts (Yahaveh Sabaioth, one of the Yahaveh-titles. The first of 281 occurrences. Denotes God of Israel as the Lord of all hosts of heaven and earth. This title especially characterizes this book) in Shiloh (= place of rest. Where the Tabernacle and Ark were. Josh.18:1; 19:51; 22:9. Judg. 18:34).

And the two sons of Eli, Hophni (= pugilist) and Phinehas (= brazen mouth), the priests of the Lord, were there.

about 1064 to 1061 B.C.

1:42:11. Elkanah and Family.

CE1:4-7. Hannah and her adversary.
Fa1:8-10. Prayer offered.
b1:11. Vow made.
Fa1:12-20. Prayer answered.
b1:21-28. Vow fulfilled.
E2:1-11. Hannah and Yahaveh.

4: And when the day was that Elkanah offered (punctuality thus emphasized), he gave to Peninnah his wife, and to all her sons and her daughters, portions:
5: But to Hannah he gave a double portion; for he loved Hannah: but the Lord had shut up her womb. (for a purpose)
6: And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the Lord had shut up her womb.
7: And as he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of the Lord, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat.

1061 B.C.

8: Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why do you weep? (cp. John 20:13,15) and why do you not eat? and why is your heart grieved? am not I better to you than ten sons? (Probably a Parmia. It is so today among the Arabs: such a woman being called a moonejeba = ennobled)
9: So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon the seat (first occurrence. Cp. Zech. 6:13) by a door post (or side post) of the palace of the Lord (Heb. heykal. 7 mentioned in Scripture: (1) The Tabernacle, 1 Sam.1:9; (2) Solomon's, 1 Kings 6:5,17; (3) Zerubbabel's, Ezra 4:1,2' (4) Herod's, John 2:20; (5) The future one of 2 Thess.2:4; (6) Thee Millennial Temple of Ezek.41:1; and (7) the heavenly Temple of Rev. 21:3,22. Also 7 references to believers as a temple in N.T.: 1 Cor. 3:9-17; 6:19. 2 Cor.6:16. Eph. 2:20,21. Heb. 3:6. 1 Pet. 2:5; 4:17. #7 = Spiritual completeness - perfection).
10: And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed to the Lord, and wept sore.

11: And she made a solemn vow, and said, O the Lord of host, if You will indeed look on the affliction of Your handmaid, and remember me, and not forget (Fig. Pleonasm, for great emphasis) Your handmaid, but will give to Your handmaid a man child, then I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head (vow of the Nazarites, see Num. 6:5. Judg. 13:5; 16:17).

12: And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the Lord, that Eli marked her mouth.
13: Now Hannah, she spoke in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: therefore Eli thought she had been drunken. (take note, head priests can and do make mistakes)
14: And Eli said to her, How long will you be drunken? put away your wine from you.
15: And Hannah answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit (Heb. rach): I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the Lord.
16: Count not your handmaid for a daughter of Belial: for out of the abundance of my complaint and grief have I spoken hitherto.
17: Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant you your petition that you have asked of him.
18: And she said, Let your handmaid find grace (which is what her name means) in your sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more sad. (this shows us her faith)
19: And they rose up in the morning early, and worshiped before the Lord, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah (hence this was Samuel's residence): and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the Lord remembered her.

1060 B.C.

20: Wherefore it came to pass, when the time was come about after Hannah had conceived, that she bare a son (thus Samuel was a descendant of Korah. See Ex. 6:24), and called his name Samuel (= asked of El [God], or El-heard), saying, Because I have asked him of the Lord.

about 1064 to 1061 B.C.

21-28. Vow Fulfilled.

bc21. Worship.
d22,23. Presentation postponed.
c24,25. Worship.
d26-28-. Presentation made.
c-28. Worship.

21: And the man Elkanah, and all his house, went up to sacrifice to the Lord the yearly sacrifice, and his vow.

22: But Hannah went not up; for she said to her husband, I will not go up until the young child be weaned (i.e. at 12 years old, able to stand on his own, see v.24), and then I will bring him, that he may appear before the Lord, and there abide for ever (Fig., the whole put for a portion; i.e. as long as he lives. Put literally in v.28).

1055 B.C.

23: And Elkanah her husband said to her, Do what seems to you good; tarry until you have weaned him; only the Lord establish His word. So the woman abode, and gave her son suck until she weaned him.

1048 B.C.

24: And when she had weaned him (from 2 Macc. 7:27 it has been inferred that the time of weaning included the periods of nourishment and up-bringing, which would bring Samuel to the age of at least 12 years. Cp. Isaac's weaning at the age of 5 years, and see Gen. 21:8), she took him up with her, with three bullocks (Sept. and Syr. read "a bullock of three years". Cp. v.25 and Gen. 15:9), and one ephah (approx. 3 pecks) of flour, and a skin bottle of wine, and brought him to the house of the Lord in Shiloh: and the child was young (Heb. vehannar naar. Fig. = "now the boy was a child").
25: And they slew the bullock, and brought the young child to Eli.

26: And she said, Oh my lord, as yourself lives, my lord, I am the woman that stood by you here, praying to the the Lord.
27: For this child I prayed; and the Lord has given me my petition which I asked of Him:
28: Therefore also I have lent him to the Lord as long as he lives. He shall be lent to the Lord. And he worshiped the Lord there.

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