1 The elders which are among you I exhort, the fellow-elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also the partaker (see 1 Cor. 10:18) of the glory about to be revealed: (Cp. 4:13.)
2 Feed the flock (cp. John 21:16. Acts 20:28) of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly (see Heb. 10:26, and cp. Philem. 14); neither for filthy lucre (cp. 1 Tim. 3:3), but readily;
3 Neither as being lords over (see Acts 19:16) the heritages [of God] (cp. Acts 1;17,26. Cp. Deut. 4:20. Pss. 28:9; 33:12,&c.), but being examples to the flock. (See Phil. 3:17. 2 Thess. 3:9. 1 Tim. 4:12. Tit. 2:7)
4 And when the chief Shepherd (see John 10:11) shall appear, you shall receive (see 1:9) the crown (the victor's crown. Cp. Rev. 12:3) of glory that fades not away. (Cp. 1:4. 1 Cor. 9:25.)
5 Likewise, you younger, submit ( 2:13,&c.as) yourselves to the elder. Yes, all of you be subject to one another, and gird yourselves with humility (see Acts 20:19): for God resists (see Acts 18;6) the proud (see Rom. 1:30), and gives grace to the humble.
6 Humble yourselves (see 2 Cor. 11:7) therefore under the mighty hand of God (cp. 1 Cor. 16:13), in order that He may exalt you (see John 12:32) in season:
7 Casting all your anxiety (p. Phil. 4:6c) upon Him; for He cares for you.
8 Be sober (see 1:13), be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion (cp. 2 Cor. 11:3,14), walks about, seeking whom he may swallow up: (See 1 Cor. 15:54.)
9 Whom resist steadfast (see 2 Tim. 2:19) in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brotherhood (see 2:17) that are in the world.
10 But the God of all grace (cp. Acts 7:2), Who called us to His eternal glory by Christ Jesus, having suffered a little [time] (the contrast is between the affliction now and the glory hereafter. Cp. 2 Cor. 4:17), make you perfect (cp. Heb. 11:21), establish (see Rom. 1:11), strengthen, ground you. (As a foundation. Cp. Eph. 3:17. Col. 1:23. These 4 verbs describe God's working, not after, but during the sufferings.)
11 To Him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
12 By Silvanus (see 2 Cor. 1:19), a faithful brother to you, as I reckon, I have written briefly, exhorting, and earnestly testifying that this is the true grace of God in which you stand.
13 The church that is in Babylon (a great many sojourners of the dispersion were in Babylon), elected together with you, salutes you; and so does Mark my son. (See Acts 12:12. This must be in the same sense as 1 Tim. 1:2. If Mark be the same as in Acts 12:12, he could not be Peter's literal son.)
14 Greet you one another with a kiss (see Rom. 16:16) of love. Peace be to you all that are in Christ Jesus. Amen.