U V¹ 1,2. Ahab. Visited By Jehoshaphat. W¹ r¹ 3,4. Ramoth-gilead. Plan of Ahab. s¹ 5-28. Jehosaphat's uneasiness. r² 29. Ramoth. Battle fought. V² 30. Ahab's expedient. W² r³ 31. Ramoth-gilead. Plan of king of Syria. s² 32. Jehoshaphat's danger. r4 33-36. Ramoth-gilead. Battle won. V³ 37,38. Ahab's death.
1 Kings 22)
1 And they continued three years without war between Syria and Israel (probably reckoned from the peace of 20:34. During this time Jehoshaphat "strengthened himself against Israel" [2 Chron.17:1]: not mentioned here because esoteric. See note on title of 1 Kings).
2 And it came to pass in the third year, that Jehoshaphat (= whom Yahaveh judges) the king of Judah came down to the king of Israel (in every sense of the word; and this after 2 Chron. 17:1. First was the matrimonial alliance [2 Chron. 18:1], Cp. 2 Kings 8:18; and the the military alliance [v.4 and 2 Chron. 18:3]. No mention here of the former, which was the secret cause that led up to it. Both fatal. Compare the commercial alliance of Jehoshaphat in 2 Chron. 20:35-37, and the experience gained by Jehoshaphat in ch. 22:48,49).
3 And the king of Israel said to his servants, “Know you all that Ramoth (= a hill. One of the cities of Refuge) in Gilead [is] ours (given by Yahaveh. Therefore presumably a "good work" to take it. But "good works" are "prepared works" [Eph. 2:10], and this was not so prepared. See 2 Chron. 19:1,2) , and we [be] still, [and] take it not out of the hand of the king of Syria?” (Probably taken in former war [16:34-20:43] by Ben-hadad I from Omri, which his son Ben-hadad II agreed to restore)
4 And he said to Jehoshaphat, “Will you go with me to battle to Ramoth-gilead?” (the hill of the rocky region) And Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, “I [am] as you [are], my People as your People, my horses as your horses.”
s¹ X¹ t¹ 5. Jehoshaphat. u¹ 6. Ahab. t² 7. Jehoshaphat. u² 8,9. Ahab. t³ 10-. Jehoshaphat. u³ -10-12. Ahab. Y x¹ 13. Micaiah. Messenger to. x² 14. Micaiah. To messenger. X² v¹ 15. Micaiah. w¹ 16. The king. v² 17. Micaiah. w² 18. The king. v³ 19-25. Micaiah. w³ 26,27. the king. v4 28. Micaiah.
5 And Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, “Inquire, I pray you, at the word of the Lord today.”
6 Then the king of Israel gathered the prophets together (i.e. Ahab's false prophets), about four hundred men, and said to them, “Shall I go against Ramoth-gilead to battle, or shall I forbear?” And they said, “Go up; for the Lord shall deliver [it] into the hand of the king.”
7 And Jehoshaphat said, “[Is there] not here a prophet of the Lord besides (Jehshaphat uneasy, well knowing that Ahab's prophets were not the prophet's of Yahaveh), that we might inquire of Him?”
8 And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “[There is] yet one man, Micaiah (= who is like Yah!? [God]) the son of Imlah, by whom we may enquire of the Lord: but I hate him; for he does not prophesy good concerning me, but evil.” And Jehoshaphat said, “Let not the king say so.”
9 Then the king of Israel called an officer, and said, “Hasten [to this place] Micaiah the son of Imlah.”
10 And the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah sat each on his throne, having put on their robes, in a level place (or threshing-floor) in the entrance of the gate of Samaria;
and all the prophets prophesied before them.
11 And Zedekiah (= justice of Yahaveh) the son of Chenaanah made him horns of iron: and he said, “Thus says the Lord, ‘With these shall you push the Syrians, until you have consumed them.’ ”
12 And all the prophets prophesied so, saying, “Go up to Ramoth-gilead, and prosper: for the Lord shall deliver [it] into the king's hand.”
13 And the messenger that was gone to call Micaiah spoke to him, saying, “Behold now, the words of the prophets [declare] good to the king with one mouth: let your word, I pray you, be like the word of one of them, and speak [that which is] good.”
14 And Micaiah said, “[As] the Lord lives, what the Lord says to me, that will I speak.”
15 So he came to the king. And the king said to him, “Micaiah, shall we go against Ramoth-gilead to battle, or shall we forbear?” And he answered him, “Go, and prosper (Fig. Eironeia. Doubtless repeating the words he had heard in vv.6,13): for the Lord shall deliver [it] into the hand of the king.”
16 And the king said to him, “How many times shall (or must) I adjure you that you tell me nothing but [that which is] true in the name of the Lord?”
17 And he said, “I saw all Israel scattered upon the hills, as sheep that have not a shepherd: and the Lord said, ‘These have no master: let them return every man to his house in peace.’ ”
18 And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “Did I not tell you that he would prophesy no good concerning me, but evil?”
19 And he said, “Hear you therefore the word of the Lord: I saw the Lord sitting on His throne, and all the host of the heavens standing by Him on His right hand and on His left.
20 And the Lord said, ‘Who shall entice Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead?’ And one said on this manner, and another said on that manner.
21 And there came forth the spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said, ‘I will persuade him.’
22 And the Lord said to him, ‘With what?’ And he said, ‘I will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.’ And he said, ‘You shalt persuade [him] (illustrating 2 Thess.2:9-12. Cp. Ezek. 14:9: "I have deceived" = I have permitted it. This is quite in harmony with Prov.12:22. That refers to the sphere of God's grace; this to the sphere of His judgment. We are governed by His Word, not by His ways. Prov.12:22 refers to the world of men. This to the world of spirits), and prevail also: go forth, and do so.’
23 Now therefore, behold, the Lord has put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these your prophets, and the Lord has spoken evil concerning you.’ (see v.17)
24 But Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah went near, and smote Micaiah on the cheek, and said, “Which way then went the Spirit of the Lord from me to speak to you?”
25 And Micaiah said, “Behold, you shall see in that day, when you shall go into an inner chamber to hide yourself.”
26 And the king of Israel said, “Take Micaiah, and carry him back to Amon the governor of the city, and to Joash the king's son;
27 And say, ‘Thus says the king, “Put this [fellow] in the prison (1 of the 11 rulers offended with God's servants for speaking the truth. See Ex. 10:28), and feed him with bread of affliction and with water of affliction, until I come in peace.” ' ”
28 And Micaiah said, “If you return at all in peace, the Lord has not spoken by me.” And he said, “listen, O peoples, all of you.”
29 So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah went up to Ramoth-gilead.
30 And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “I will disguise myself (see v.22. A feigned compliment, and piece of treachery), and enter into the battle; but put you on your robes.” And the king of Israel disguised himself, and went into the battle.
31 But the king of Syria commanded his thirty and two captains that had rule over his chariots, saying, “Fight neither with small nor great, save only with the king of Israel.”
32 And it came to pass, when the captains of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat, that they said, “Surely he [is] the king of Israel.” And they turned aside to fight against him: and Jehoshaphat cried out (see 2 Chron. 18:31).
33 And it came to pass, when the captains of the chariots perceived that he [was] not the king of Israel, that they turned back from pursuing him.
34 And a [certain] man drew a bow in his innocence (or to its full stretch), and smote the king of Israel between the joints of the coat of mail: wherefore he said to the driver of his chariot, “Turn your hand (this is Ahab's history; 2 Chron. 18 is Jehoshaphat's. Hence nothing about Yahaveh's help), and carry me out of the host; for I am wounded.”
35 And the battle increased that day: and the king stayed himself up in his chariot against the Syrians (as in 2 Chron. 18:34. Difference caused by pointing of the word mâ’âmâd [here], and mâ’âmid in Chronicles. The only occ. of this participle, cp. 2 Chron. 18:34), and died at even: and the blood ran out of the wound into the midst of the chariot.
36 And there went a proclamation throughout the host about the going down of the sun, saying, “[Let] every [go] man to his city, and every man to his own country.”
37 So the king died, and was brought to Samaria; and they buried the king in Samaria.
38 And [one] washed the chariot in the pool of Samaria; and the dogs licked up his blood; and they washed his armour; according to the word of the Lord which He spoke.
39 Now the rest of the acts of Ahab, and all that he did, and the ivory house which he made, and all the cities that he built, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?
40 So Ahab slept with his fathers (see Deut. 31:16]); and Ahaziah his son reigned in his stead.
F² A¹ 41,42. Jehoshaphat. Accesion. B¹ 43,44. Personal. Well- and wrong-doing. A² 45. Jehoshaphat. Political events. Record. B² 46-49. Personal. Well- and wrong-doing. A³ 50. Jehoshaphat. Death and burial.
41 And Jehoshaphat the son of Asa began to reign over Judah in the fourth year of Ahab king of Israel (cp. 2 Chron. 17:1).
42 Jehoshaphat [was] thirty and five years old when he began to reign; and he reigned twenty and five years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name [was] Azubah the daughter of Shilhi.
43 And he walked in all the ways of Asa his father (the 19th Sedar begins here, and ends with 2 Kings 2:14. see notes on intro to 1 & 2 Samuel); he turned not aside from it, doing [that which was] right in the eyes of the Lord: nevertheless the high places were not taken away; [for] the People sacrificed and burnt incense yet in the high places.
44 And Jehoshaphat made peace with the king of Israel.
45 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, and his might that he showed, and how he warred, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?
46 And the remnant of the sodomites (see 14:23,24), which remained in the days of his father Asa, he took out of the land.
47 [There was] then no king in Edom (as later in 2 Kings 8:20): a deputy (appointed by the king of Judah) [was] king.
48 Jehoshaphat made Tharshish ships to go to Ophir for gold (See 10:22. Large ocean-going ships. This was subsequent to 2 Chron. 20:35-37. Here Jehoshaphat made "Tharshish ships" to go to Ophir, and, profiting by the experience and warning of 2 Chron. 20:37, refused the request of Ahaziah, king of Israel. In 2 Chron. 20:35 he had joined himself with Ahaziah to make ordinary ships to go to Tharshish, which was quite a different thing. Tharshish = a gem, perhaps the topaz): but they went not; for the ships were broken at Ezion-geber (= giant's backbone).
49 Then said Ahaziah the son of Ahab to Jehoshaphat, “Let my servants go with your servants in the ships.” But Jehoshaphat would not.
50 And Jehoshaphat slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father (in further explanation of preceding clause): and Jehoram (= whom Yehovah has exalted) his son reigned in his stead.
E³ C¹ 1 Kings 22:51-2 Kings 1:18. Ahaziah. D 2 Kings 2:1-25. Elijah. C² 2 Kings 3:1-8:15. Joram.
C¹ E 1 Kings 22:51. Introduction. Accession. F 1 Kings 22:52,53. Personal. Evil-doing. G 2 Kings 1:1. Political. Rebelion of Moab. F 2 Kings 1:2-16. Personal. Evil-doing. E 2 Kings 1:17,18. Conclusion. Death and Burial.
802 to 800 B.C.
51 Ahaziah (= sustained by the Lord) the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria (= watch-mountain) the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned two years over Israel.
52 And he did evil in the sight of the Lord, and walked in the way of his father, and in the way of his mother, and in the way of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin (see 14:16 for 1st occ.):
53 For he served Baal, and worshiped him, and provoked to anger the Lord God of Israel (cp. 1:30), according to all that his father had done.