D K1 19:1-5. The provocation. K2 19:6-20:8. The wars.
D u 1,2-. David hears of Hanun's bereavement. v -2. Condolence sent to Hanun. w 3. Suspicion. v 4. Condolence requited with indignity. u 5. David hears of Hanun's action.
1 Chronicles 19)
1 Now it came to pass after this, (see 2 Sam. 10:1-19) that Nahash the king of the sons of Ammon died, and Hanun his son reigned in his stead.
2 And David said, "I will shew kindness to Hanun the son of Nahash, because his father shewed kindness to me."
And David sent consolers to him concerning his father. So the servants of David came into the land of the sons of Ammon to Hanun, to comfort him.
3 But the princes of the children of Ammon said to Hanun, "Think you that David does honor your father, that he has sent comforters to thee? are not his servants come to you for to search, and to overthrow, and to spy out the land?"
4 Wherefore Hanun took David's servants, and shaved them, and cut off their garments in the midst hard by their buttocks, and sent them away.
5 Then there went certain, and told David how the men were served. And he sent to meet them: for the men were greatly ashamed. And the king said, "Tarry at Jericho until your beards be grown, and then return."
K2 L1 19:6-19. Wars with Ammon and Syrians. L1 20:1-3. Suspicion. L1 20:4-8. Wars with Philistines.
L x 6-13. Assemblage of armies. y 14-. Engagement with Syrians. z -14. Flight of Syrians. a 15. Flight of Ammonites. x 16,17-. Assemblage. y -17. Engagement with Syrians. z 18. Flight of Syrians. a 19. Submission of Syrians.
6 And when the children of Ammon saw that they had made themselves odious to David, Hanun and the children of Ammon sent a thousand talents of silver to hire them chariots and horsemen out of Mesopotamia, (= Syria of the two rivers) and out of Syriamaachah, and out of Zobah.
7 So they hired thirty and two thousand chariots, and the king of Maachah and his people; who came and pitched before Medeba. And the children of Ammon gathered themselves together from their cities, and came to battle.
8 And when David heard of it, he sent Joab, and all the host of the mighty men.
9 And the children of Ammon came out, and put the battle in array before the entrance of the city: and the kings that were come were by themselves in the field.
10 Now when Joab saw that the battle confronted him before and behind, he chose out of all the choice of Israel, and put them in array against the Syrians.
11 And the rest of the people he delivered to the hand of Abishai his brother, and they set themselves in array against the sons of Ammon.
12 And he said, "If the Syrians be too strong for me, then you shall help me: but if the children of Ammon be too strong for you, then I will help you.
13 Be of good courage, and let us behave ourselves valiantly for our people, and for the cities of our God (Elohim): and let the Lord do that which is good in His sight."
14 So Joab and the people that were with him drew nigh before the Syrians to the battle;
and they fled before him.
15 And when the sons of Ammon saw that the Syrians were fled, they likewise fled before Abishai his brother, and entered into the city. Then Joab came to Jerusalem.
16 And when the Syrians saw that they were put to the worse before Israel, they sent messengers, and drew forth the Syrians that were beyond the Euphrates: and Shophach the captain of the host of Hadarezer went before them.
17 And it was told David; and he gathered all Israel, and passed over Jordan, and came upon them, and set the battle in array against them.
So when David had put the battle in array against the Syrians, they fought with him.
18 But the Syrians fled before Israel; and David slew of the Syrians seven thousand men which fought in chariots, (see v.7, and cp. 2 Sam. 10:18) and forty thousand footmen, and killed Shophach the captain of the host.
19 And when the servants of Hadarezer saw that they were put to the worse before Israel, they made peace with David, and became his servants: neither would the Syrians help the sons of Ammon any more.