P2 Q R 1. General. S 2-22. Particular. Q R 23. General. S 24-37. Particular.
1 Chronicles 12)
1 Now these are they (these are not included elsewhere: showing the independence of Chronicles) that came to David to Ziklag, while he yet kept himself close because of Saul the son of Kish: (see 8:33) and they were among the mighty men, helpers of the war.
S p 2-7. Benjamites. q 8-15. Others, from Israel (Gadites). p 16-18. Benjamin and Judah. q 19-22. Others from Israel (Manasseh).
2 They were armed with bows, and could use both the right hand and the left in hurling stones and shooting arrows out of a bow, (cp. Judg. 3:15; 20:15,16) even of Saul's brethren of Benjamin. (i.e. his fellow-tribesmen. Cp. v.29)
3 The chief was Ahiezer, then Joash, the sons of Shemaah the Gibeathite; and Jeziel, and Pelet, the sons of Azmaveth; and Berachah, and Jehu the Antothite.
4 And Ismaiah the Gibeonite, a mighty man among the thirty, (probably another "30" at a later period. Ishmaiah not in the list. 2 Sam. 23,24, &c.) and over the thirty; and Jeremiah, and Jahaziel, and Johanan, and Josabad the Gederathite,
5 Eluzai, and Jerimoth, and Bealiah, and Shemariah, and Shephatiah the Haruphite,
6 Elkanah, and Jesiah, and Azareel, and Joezer, and Jashobeam, the Korhites,
7 And Joelah, and Zebadiah, the sons of Jeroham of Gedor.
8 And of the Gadites there separated themselves (another example of how Judah came to be representative of the whole of Israel. See 1 kings 12:17) to David into the hold to the wilderness men of might, and men of war fit for the battle, that could handle shield and spear, (cp. Jer. 46:3) whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were as swift as the roes upon the mountains;
9 Ezer the first, Obadiah the second, Eliab the third,
10 Mishmannah the fourth, Jeremiah the fifth,
11 Attai the sixth, Eliel the seventh,
12 Johanan the eighth, Elzabad the ninth,
13 Jeremiah the tenth, Machbanai the eleventh.
14 These were of the sons of Gad, captains of the host: one of the least was over an hundred, and the greatest over a thousand.
15 These are they that went over Jordan in the first month (Nisan, or Abib. Late March-early Feb.), when it had overflown all his banks; (cp. Josh. 3:15) and they put to flight all them of the valleys, both toward the east, and toward the west.
16 And there came of the sons of Benjamin and Judah to the hold to David.
17 And David went out to meet them, and answered and said to them, "If you be come peaceably to me to help me, (a second band made David suspicious) mine heart shall be one with you: but if you be come to betray me to my enemies, seeing there is no act of violence in my hands, the God of our fathers look thereon, and rebuke it."
18 Then the Spirit (Ruach) clothed (i.e. clothed him with wisdom and power: i.e., employed him as His mouthpiece) Amasa, (David's nephew [2:17]. Cp. 2 Sam. 19:13) who was chief of the captains, and he said, "Yours are we, David, and on your side, you son of Jesse: peace, peace be to you, and peace be to your helpers; for your God helpeth you." Then David received them, and made them captains of the band.
19 And there fell some of Manasseh to David, (besides the Gadites. See 1 Kings 12:17 for the strengthening of Judah and making it representative of the whole nation) when he came with the Philistines against Saul to battle: but they (David and his men. See 1 Sam. 28:1,2; 29) helped them not: (the Philistines) for the lords (or princes) of the Philistines advisedly (or by council. Cp. 21:12) sent him away, saying, "He will fall to his master Saul to the jeopardy of our heads." (Or to the cost of our heads)
20 As he went to Ziklag, there fell to him of Manasseh, Adnah, and Jozabad, and Jediael, and Michael, and Jozabad, and Elihu, and Zilthai, captains of the thousands that were of Manasseh.
21 And they helped with David against the band of the rovers: (i.e. the Amalekites, who had burned Ziklag during his absence. See 1 Sam. 30:1-20. It is assumed we knew of this) for they were all mighty men of valour, and were captains in the host.
22 For at that time day by day there came to David to help him, until it was a great host, (about 300,000 men) like the host of God.
23 And these are the numbers of the bands that were ready armed to the war, and came to David to Hebron, to turn the kingdom of Saul to him, according to the mouth of the Lord. (Put for what is spoken by it.)
S T1 24. Judah. T2 25. Simeon. T3 26-28. Levi. T4 29. Benjamin. T5 30. Ephraim. T6 31. Half-Manasseh. T7 32. Issachar. T8 33. Zebulon. T9 34. Naphtali T10 35. Dan. T11 36. Asher. T12 37. Those beyond Jordan.
24 The children of Judah that bare shield and spear were six thousand and eight hundred, ready armed to the war.
25 Of the children of Simeon, mighty men of valour for the war, seven thousand and one hundred.
26 Of the children of Levi four thousand and six hundred.
27 And Jehoiada (not the high priest; for Abiathar held that office [1 Sam. 23:9; 30:7) was the leader of the Aaronites, and with him were three thousand and seven hundred;
28 And Zadok, (probably the same as Solomon's high priest [2 Sam. 8:17; 15:29,33; 20:25. 1 Kings 1;826; 2:35) a young man mighty of valour, and of his father's house twenty and two captains.
29 And of the sons of Benjamin, the kindred of Saul, (Heb. brethren, "brethren" put for other relatives) three thousand: for hitherto the greatest part of them had kept the charge of the house of Saul. (Put for keeping what was commanded)
30 And of the children of Ephraim twenty thousand and eight hundred, mighty men of valour, famous (Heb. men of names) throughout the house of their fathers.
31 And of the half tribe of Manasseh eighteen thousand, which were expressed by name, to come and make David king.
32 And of the children of Issachar, which were men that had understanding (understood statesmanship) of the times, (put for what is [or ought to be]done in them) to know what Israel ought to do; the heads of them were two hundred; and all their brethren were at their commandment.
33 Of Zebulun, such as went forth to battle, expert in war, with all instruments of war, fifty thousand, (Zebulun the greatest number of any tribe) which could keep rank: they were not of double heart. (Contrast with a perfect heart, as one heart, v.38)
34 And of Naphtali a thousand captains, and with them with shield and spear thirty and seven thousand.
35 And of the Danites expert in war twenty and eight thousand and six hundred. (So far from none being in Palestine after 1285 B.C., the tribe could send more to help David than Ephraim or Manasseh, and more than Judah, Simeon, Levi, and Benjamin put together)
36 And of Asher, such as went forth to battle, expert in war, forty thousand.
37 And from the other side of Jordan, of the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and of the half tribe of Manasseh, with all manner of instruments of war for the battle, an hundred and twenty thousand.
38 All these men of war, that could keep rank, came with a perfect heart to Hebron, (in contrast with a double heart. Heart being put for its desires) to make David king over all Israel:
and all the rest also of Israel were of one heart to make David king. (See Ps. 133:1, and its references to 2 Sam. 19:9. 2 Chron. 30:12)
39 And there they were with David three days, eating and drinking: (a covenant generally followed by festivities [Gen. 31:44,46]. Cp. 1 Kings 1:9) for their brethren had prepared for them.
40 Moreover they that were nigh them, even unto Issachar and Zebulun and Naphtali, brought bread on asses, and on camels, (Fig. Polysyndeton, emphasizing the fact that there were no horses) and on mules, and on oxen, and meat, meal, cakes of figs, and bunches of raisins, and wine, and oil, and oxen, and sheep abundantly: for there was joy in Israel.